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DEPARTMENT OF MINES AND AGEfCULTURE. 

■ iL/^i rf?)c 

MEMOIRS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

K. F. PICTMiN, JL.VUS.TL, OOTEBNMEKT flEOLOaiST. 



GEOLOGY, No. 5. 



GEOLOGY 



OF THE 



BROKEN HILL LODE AND BARRIER RANGES MINERAL EIRLD, 

NEW SOUTH WALES ; 



WITH 



MAPS, PLATES, AND SECTIONS: 



BY 



J. B. JAQUET, A.R.S.M., F.G.S., 

Geological Surveyor. 



SYDNEY : CHARLES POTTER, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 



1894. 
11a 68-94 A 



209754 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 



LlTTEB OF TbAKSMITTAL, BY E. F. PlTTMAN, EsQ., A.E.8.M., GOYEBNMENT GEOLOGIST... * ix 



MEMOIR. 

CHAPTER I. 

HiSTOBY. 

Synopsis o£ history, with value of minerals exported ... 



Introductory 

Watersheds 

Vegetation 

Scenery 

Sainfall ... 

Evaporation 

Temperature 

Dust-storms 



CHAPTEE II. 
Physical Geoobaphy and Metkobology. 





... 32 




... 32 




... 34 




... 34 




... 34 




... 35 




... 85 




... 35 



CHAPTEE III. 
Bbief accoukt of the Geology of the Distbict abound the Babbieb Eanges. 

Sedimentary rocks 36 

Intrusive and volcanic rocks 38 

^/Economic mineral deposits *. 42 



CHAPTEE IV. 
Srdimentaby and altebed Seddcentaby EocEis OF THE Babbieb Eanges 



... ... 

r 
••• ... 



Palaeozoic ... 

Slates 

Limestones 

Crystalline schists 

Cainozoic (Post-Tertiary and Eecent deposits) 



Acid rocks 
Granite ... 
Ultrabasic rocks ... 
Amphibolite 
Serpentine 
Schillerization 



CHAPTEE V. 
Intbusiye Eocks. 



•0* 



•*• 



43 
44 

44 
45 

47 



50 
60 
53 
53 
67 
69 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VI. 
l^ Economic Mineral Deposits, Introductory 

- ' CHAPTEE VII. 

The Broken Hill Lodes. 
Broken Hill Lode... 

It is a saddle Lode 

Trend 'coiiicides with strike of country ... 

Irregular character of Lode in places ... 

Walls of Lode 

Movements have probably taken place in Western Wall 

Outcrop of Lode ... 

Formation of outcrop 

Relation between width of outcrop and its height above cap of saddle 

Eastern Lode 

North-eastern Lode 

Western Lode 

Ore contained in Lodes is probably result of lateral secretion 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Mines Exploiting the Broken Hill Lodes. 
Broken Hill Proprietary 

Broken Hill Proprietary Block 10 

Broken Hill Proprietary Block 14 

British Broken Hill Proprietary 

Central Broken Hill 

Broken Hill South 

Broken Hill Junction 

Broken Hill North Junction 

North Broken Hill 

Explorations carried out with a view of proving the Broken Hill Lode on its underlay 

CHAPTER IX. 

Ores contained in the Broken Hill Lodes. 
Sulphide ores 

Ordinary sulphides 

Secondary sulphides 

Garnet rock (Garnet Sandstone) ... 

Oxidised ores 

Redistribution of contents of Lode by permeating waters 

Masses of kaolin in Lode 

Very little zinc present in oxidised ore ... 

Minerals present ... 

Manganiferous iron ore ... 

Carbonate of load ore 

Dry high grade ore 

Dry low grade ore 

Presence of garnets in the lode .. . 



PAGE. 

60 



62 
62 
62 
63 
63 
64f 
64 
65 
65 
66 
66 
67 
68 



69 
75 
76 

77 
79 
81 
82 
83 
84 
84 



86 
86 
88 
88 
88 
89 
89 
89 
90 
91 
91 
91 
91 
92 



^ 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



General description 
" Slugs" of horn silver 
Maybell Mine 



CHAPTEB XV. 
AppoLroN Valley and Pubkamoota Lodes. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Rockwell Lodes. 



General description 

Melbourne Rockwell Mine 

Great Eastern Mine 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Miscellaneous Mnrss near Bboken Hill. 
Australian Broken Hill Consols Mine ... 

Victoria Cross Mine 

Imperial Mine 

CosgroTes Mine 

Fotosi Mine 

Silver Hill Mine 

Globe Mine 

Alpha Mine 

Round Hill 

Silver Peak Silver Mine 

Block 5 Mine 

Broken Hill South Extended Mine 

Rising Sun 

White Lead Mines 



CHAPTER XVIIL 

Tin Beabino Dykes (?) of Eubiowib and Waukeboo. 
General description 

Analogous occurrence of Tin in Dakota, U.S.A. 

Huel Byjerkemo Mine ... 

Mount Euriowie Mine ... ... ... ... 

Badjerican Mine ... 

Caloela (Euriowie Tin-mining Company) ... ... 

Barrier Bischoff Mine 

X uiawie juiiie ... ••• **• *•• ... .•• *•. ••• .•> 



•.• 



••» 



••• 



••• 



••• 



Ironstone and Copper 
Gold 

Platinum 

Asbestos ... 
Phosphates 
Concluding remarks 



CHAPTER XIX. 

OCCXTBBSNCE OF OTHEB MetALS. 



• .• 



• •• 



• •• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



• •• 



••• 



PAOB. 

118 
118 
120 



121 
121 
122 



123 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
127 



128 
129 
180 
180 
131 
131 
131 
131 







132 






138 






134 






134 






135 






186 



APPENDIX I. 
I Refobt by E. F. Pittman, Govebnment Geologist, on the Bboken Hill Lode... 138 

APPENDIX II. 
Bibliogbapht by W. S. Dxtn, Ac 142 



IX 



Lettei^^ of transmittal. 



Geological Survey, N. S. Wales, 

Department of Mines and Agriculture, 

Sydney, 2 October, 1893. 
Sir, 

I have the honour to submit for publication Memoir No. 5 of 
the Geological Series on the Oeology of the Broken Sill Lode and Barrier 
Ranges Mineral Field of New South Wales, by Mr. J. B. Jaquet, A.R.S.M., 
F.G.S., Geological Surveyor. 

This Memoir is invested with more than ordinary interest, by reason 
of the fact that the subject of it, the Broken Hill Silver Lode, has within a 
period of eight or nine years been the means of converting part of a dreary 
salt-bush desert into a populous town, with handsome buildings fronting well- 
paved streets, lighted by electricity, with a good water supply, and with 
railway communication with the principal cities of Australia. 

Since the discovery of the early alluvial gold-fields no other metal- 
liferous deposit in Australia has caused such excitement, or attracted 
population so rapidly. The enormous richness of the upper or oxidised 
portion of the deposit, the peculiar saddle-like form of the lode itself, and 
the diflSiculty which has been experienced in treating the mixed argentiferous 
sulphides, of which the lode is composed below, are all points of special 
interest. The future of the field unquestionably depends upon the devising 
of a satisfactory method of extracting the silver, lead, and zinc from this ore, 
which consists of galena and blende in such an intimate state of admixture 
in some cases as to almost appear chemically combined, while the silver 
occurs partly in the galena and partly in the zinc blende. 

Mr. Jaquet's task has not been a light one, but he entered upon it with 
enthusiasm, and I think his Memoir will be appreciated by the scientific 
as well as the mining community. 

I have the honour to be. 
Sir, 
Tour obedient servant, 
EDWARD F. PITTMAN, A.R.S.M., 

Government Geologist. 
Harrie Wood, Esq., J.P., 

Under Secretary for Mines and Agriculture. 

B 



CHAPTER I. 

History. 

Synopsis of the History of Metalliferous Mining at Broken Sill and the 
Barrier Ranges^ together with the value of the Mineral Products comported 
for each Year. 

1844. — Discovery of the Barrier Ranges by Sturt. 
First geological reference to the district. 

1867. — ^Disastrous gold rush. 

1876. — Discovery of silver lead ore at Thackaringa. 

1880. — Mining started afresh at Thackaringa. 

1882. — Rush to Thackaringa and TJmberumberka. 

1883. — ^Town of Silverton surveyed. • 

Rush to Silverton and Appollyon Valley. 
" Pegging out " of Broken Hill. 

1884. — Occurrence of drought. 
Growth of Silverton. 
Purnamoota proclaimed a township. 
Chloride of silver discovered at Broken Hill. 

loO&« Amount. Value. 

•Befined silver 47,521 ozs £9,503 

Silver lead ore 1,623 J tons 78,128 

Silver lead bullion 190i „ 25,650 

£108,281 

Formation of Broken Hill Proprietary Company. 

Blast furnaces erected at Pinnacles and Day Dream Mines. 

Discovery of tin. 

* Thcfle and the succeeding returns are extracted from the Annual Beportf of the Warden j the figures hare 
been obtained bj this OfBcor in most instances from the Custom House authorities. — J.B J". 



1886.' 



1887.- 



1888.- 



1889. 



1890. 



Amount. 
•110,256 0Z3. 


Yaluo. 
£81,910 


1,711 tons 


67,233 


3,030 „ 


221,211 


2 „ 


69 


"• 91 .•.••! 





Befined Hilver... 
Silver ore 
Silver lead bullion 
Tin ore 



Smelting commenced at Broken Hill. 
Township of Silverton. 

-Value of minerals exported, £600,000. 

Difficulty as regards the settlement at Broken Hill. 

Formation of Block 14 Silver-mining Company. 

Management of Proprietary Mine. 

Completion of railway between mines and sea coast. 



£370,423 



Silver lead ore... 
Silver lead bullion 

Tin ore 

Copper ore 
Auriferous quartz 



Amount. Value. 

10,766 tons £136,800 

17,247 „ 863,467 

55 „ 1,095 

24 „ 304 

9 „ 182 



Great drought. 

Broken Hill fire. 

Formation of Block 10 Silver-mining Company. 



Silver ore 

Silver lead bullion ... 

Tin ore 

Copper ore 

Gold-bearing quartz... 



£1,001,848 



Growth of Broken Hill. 
First strike of miners. 



Silver lead ore 

Silver lead bullion 

Copper ore 

Second strike of miners. 



Amount. 


Value. 


42,253 tons 


£291,534 


31,544 „ 


1,433,679 


8 „ 


86 


106 „ 
1 « 


1,081 
17 


— . „ ... 






£1,726,397 


Amount. 


Value. 


88,870 tons 


£774,600 


40,755 „ 


1,844,262 


3oii/ §1 ••• 


9,774 







£2,628,536 



3 



• 



18 vl •~~' Amount. . Value. 

Silver lead ore 93,94!2 tons £985,403 

Silver lead bullion 54,722 „ 2,539,685 

Copper ore 203 „ 3,965 

£3,529,04i3 

Opening of Tarrawingee tramway. 

Decline of Silverton. 

Reason for the decline of the smaller silver and tin fields. 

lo«72« — Lead ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 26,552 tons. 

Silver 12,969,195 oz. 

Copper ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 223 tons. 

Total value of minerals exported, £2,371,873. 
Great drought. 
Acacia water trust. 

History of Broken Hill water supply — 
(1.) Soakages. 

(2.) Tanks and dams — Stephen's Creek Waterworks. 
(3.) Wells in Palaeozoic rocks. 
(4.) Artesian water. 
(5.) Water from the Darling — " Stockdale's " Scheme. 

Third strike of miners — 
Re-opening of mines. 
Arrest of leaders of the men. 
Collapse of the strike. 

Lead poisoning — 

Appointment of Inquiry Board. 
Report and recommendation of Board. 

ISM. 
Discovery of Barrier Ranges by Start.— The Barrier Ranges 

were, towards the end of this year, discovered hy Captain Charles Sturt, who 
passed across them during his journey of exploration into the central portion 
of Australia. Sturt proceeded up the Darling River to a spot known to the 
Ahorigines by the name of Williorara, situated close to the present township 
of Menindie. Striking off hero to the north-west he passed over the 
intervening plains and reached the southern portion of the ranges, which are 
but 66 miles distant from the river. 



First Geological llefercncc. — It is also from this cxi)lorer that we 
get the first information regarding the geology of the district, for he says as 
follows* : — " The rock formation of Cumahaga was of three different kinds. 
A mixture of lime and clay, a tufaccous deposit, and an apparently recent 
deposit of soapstone containing a .variety of suhtances, as alumina, silica, 
magnesia, and iron. The ranges on either side of the glen were generally 
varieties of gneiss and granite, in many of which felspar predominated, 
coarse ferruginous sandstone, and a siliceous rock with mammillary haematite 
and hornblende. These and a great mixture of iron ores composed the first 
or eastern line of Stanley's or the Barrier Ranges." In another portion of 
the narrative the discovery of tourmaline in granite is mentioned. 

1867. 

Disastrous Gold Rush. — The history of metalliferous mining on the 
Barrier Ranges may be said to have commenced in this year, when a rush of 
men in search of gold took place from Burra BuiTa in South Australia, which 
was. attended with many sad results. The i)rospectors, wandering in the 
almost waterless and sparsely settled country, endured terrible hardships, and 
not a few perished miserably of thirst. Many stories are told by old pioneers 
of the cii'cumstances which led up to the rush, but it is difficult now to 
obtain exact particulars on this subject. The masses of glistening white 
quartz, which abound in many parts of the country, might always be likely 
to raise hopes in the minds of those who had seen or read a description of the 
gold reefs of Ballarat and Bendigo. Even at the present day one may meet 
men who think quartz and gold well nigh inseparable. So if teamsters 
bringing down wool from the newly stocked stations into South Australia 
dwelt upon the quartz they had seen, the first symptoms of gold fever might 
be developed among the people they were brought in contact with. It is 
said that one waggoner surreptitiously obtained from a station overseer a 
piece of reef quartz showing gold freely, which piece of quartz had been 
obtained by its owner from Ballarat, and that the exhibition of this specimen 
led immediately to the disastrous rush taking place. 

No precious metal of any kind was found. The sole desideratum of 
the prospectors was gold, and in their search for this metal they must have 
passed over the deposits of silver ore which twenty years later were to give the 

* Captain Charles Sturt. Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia, &c. i., p. 166 (2 yoU., 
8vo., London, 1849). 



IX 



Lettei^ of transmittal. 



Geological Survey, N. S. Wales, 

Department of Mines and Agriculture, 

Sydney, 2 October, 1893. 
Sir, 

I have the honour to submit for publication Memoir No. 5 of 
the Geological Series on the Oeology of the Broken Sill Lode and Barrier 
Ranges Mineral Field of New South JValeSy by Mr. J. B. Jaquet, A.R.S.M., 
F.G.S., Geological Surveyor. 

This Memoir is invested with more than ordinary interest, by reason 
of the fact that the subject of it, the Broken Hill Silver Lode, has within a 
period of eight or nine years been the means of converting part of a dreary 
salt-bush desert into a populous town, with handsome buildings fronting well- 
paved streets, lighted by electricity, with a good water supply, and with 
railway communication with the principal cities of Australia. 

Since the discovery of the early alluvial gold-fields no other metal- 
liferous deposit in Australia has caused such excitement, or attracted 
population so rapidly. The enormous richness of the upper or oxidised 
portion of the deposit, the peculiar saddle-like form of the lode itself, and 
the difficulty which has been experienced in treating the mixed argentiferous 
sulphides, of which the lode is composed below, are all points of special 
interest. The future of the field unquestionably depends upon the devising 
of a satisfactory method of extracting the silver, lead, and zinc from this ore, 
which consists of galena and blende in such an intimate state of admixture 
in some cases as to almost appear chemically combined, while the silver 
occurs partly in the galena and partly in the zinc blende. 

Mr. Jaquet's task has not been a light one, but he entered upon it with 
enthusiasm, and I think his Memoir will be appreciated by the scientific 
as well as the mining community. 

I have the honour to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 
EDWARD F. PITTMAN, A.R.S.M., 

Government Geologist. 
Harrie Wood, Esq., J.P., 

Under Secretary for Mines and Agriculture. 

B 



L 






I 

1' * 

i: ? 
■i: . 



6 

1882. 

Gold Bnsh to Monnt Brown. — Gold was discovered at Mount 
Brown in 1880, and in the years 1881 and 1882 a rush took place to this dis- 
trict. During the latter one of these two years a man named Schmidt, from 
Jamestown, S.A., en route for the new gold-field, passed through Thackaringa, 
and observed the newly-opened mine to be idle, while good ore was yet in 
sight. The Barrier Ranges being now within the area of the Albert Gold-field 
Reserve, which was proclaimed in February, 1881, he applied for mineral 
leases. The area embraced by the leases applied for by Schmidt appears to 
have been in part covered by the mineral conditional purchases for which 
application had been previously made by Green and a man named Garrot. 
The latter named men, on hearing of the doings of Schmidt, applied to the 
Supreme Court and obtained an injunction ordering him to cease work. It 
is not necessary for us to enter into the details connected with the litigation 
in reference to the Thackaringa Mines. The dispute, however, did good, inas- 
much as it helped to call attention to the district. 

Rush to Thackaringa and Umberniuberka.— Mr. Warden Steel, 

P.M., says,* in reference to the mineral discoveries, as follows : — " Silver and 
lead. — Under this head I have to report that some excitement has been occa- 
sioned by the opening up of a large quantity of land situated at Thackaringa 
and Umberumberka. Since the date of my last Report several mineral con- 
ditional purchases have been made, and a large number of mineral leases 
applied for." It would appear from the Warden's remarks that the Umber- 
umberka Mine was discovered about this time. 

1883. 

Silverton Surveyed. — Silverton was surveyed and proclaimed a 
township, and a Court of Petty Sessions and Wanlen's Court established ; it 
had before the end of the year a population of 500 souls, and applications had 
been made at the Warden's office for mineral leases which, in the aggregate, 
embraced an area of 5,180 acres. Towards the middle of the year, two 
miners, Allen Sinclair and Joseph Meech, who had been previously working 
at Thackaringa, set out to prospect the country north-east of .Silverton. 
They camped in the Appolyon Valley, and shortly afterwards Sinclair pegged 
out the Appolyon Lode, while two days after this discovery Meech found the 

•Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N.8. Wales for 1882 [1883], p. 98. 



CHAPTER I. 

History. 

Synopsis of the History of Metalliferous Mining at Broken Sill and the 
Barrier Ranges^ together with the value of the Mineral Products ea^orted 
for each Year. 

1844. — Discovery of the Barrier Ranges by Sturt. 
First geological reference to the district. 

1867. — Disastrous gold rush. 

1876. — Discovery of silver lead ore at Thackaringa. 

1880. — Mining started afresh at Thackaringa. 

1882. — Rush to Thackaringa and TJmberumberka. 

1883. — ^Town of Silverton surveyed. • 

Rush to Silverton and AppoUyon Valley. 
** Pegging out " of Broken Hill. 

1884. — Occurrence of drought. 
Growth of Silverton. 
Purnamoota proclaimed a township. 
Chloride of silver discovered at Broken Hill. 

1885. — Amount. Value. 

•Befined silver 47,521 ozs £9,503 

Silver lead ore 1,623 J tons 73,128 

Silver lead bullion 190^ „ 25,650 

£108,281 

Formation of Broken Hill Proprietary Company. 

Blast furnaces erected at Pinnacles and Day Dream Mines. 

Discovery of tin. 

^ - I ■ I r - ■ ■ ■ ■ ^1 II I -* 

* Those and the succeeding rctarns are extracted from the Annual Beportf of the Warden j the figuref hare 
been obtained by this Officer in most instances from the Custom House authorities. — J.B.J. 



8 

The story of the pegging- out, and that of the events which immediately 
followed it, is almost a household tale in all the Australian Colonies ; but it is 
necessary, for the sake of completeness, and for the information of those outside 
the Colonies into whose hands this Memoir may fall, that it should he repeated 
here. I give the narrative in the words of Mr. Warden Brown, P.M.* : — ^^ In 
September, 1883, one Charles Rasp, who was then a boundary rider on Mount 
Gipps station, marked out an area of 40 acres, believing the enormous outcrop 
of manganese to be tin. On reaching the station at night, he informed 
Mr. M^Culloch, the general manager of the station, also his mates, of what he 
had done, when it was then and there determined to form a small syndicate, 
consisting of seven persons, all station hands, each putting £70 into the 
venture. The first thing done was to apply for a mineral lease of the land taken 
up by Rasp, together with six other 40-acre blocks on the same line. These 
seven blocks now constitute .the Broken Hill proper, and were originally 
applied for by the following persons : — George M'CuUoch, George XJrquhart, 
Charles Rasp, James Poole, Philip Charley, David James, and George M. 
Lind. Work was soon commenced, and assays made for tin, but, I need 
hardly say with no beneficial results. It was then decided to sink a shaft, and 
prospect for silver, which, by this time, had been proved to exist in the 
district. The country being hard, and the sinking not showing very encourag- 
ing prospects, coupled with the fact that the small amount of capital that 
had been subscribed was exhausted, caused some of the original shareholders 
to sell to others, Lind being the first to retire, his interest being taken 
by M^Culloch and Rasp, TJrquhart being the next to give in. It was now 
determined to increase the syndicate to fourteen, for the purpose of raising 
more funds for further prospecting. Tliis arrangement was carried out, and 
the work continued until the latter part of 1884, when chlorides were first 
found in Rasp's shaft at a depth of about 100 feet. Shortly after rich 
chloride ore was found in the cap of the lode, at a different part of the mine." 



1884. 

Occurrence of Drought. — During the first portion of the year 
prospecting was almost completely checked, for nearly all the soakages, 
from which the miners were accustomed to obtain supplies of water, were dry 
in consequence of a drought prevailing. * 



• Ann. Ecpt. Dopt. Mines N. S. Wales for 1886 [1887], p. 102. 



At one time serious apprehensions were entertained as to what would 
happen to the population congregated, in Silverton should the dry weather 
continue much longer, rortimately, however, rain fell towards the end 
of the summer, and the immediate necessities of the people were relieved. 
The drought M^as not altogether unproductive of good, in so far as it taught 
the residents the folly of relying solely on such precarious supplies of water 
as were to be obtained in the soakages of the various creeks, and they 
commenced to dig out tanks and races in order to conserve the rain-M'ater at 
the surface. 

Growtll of Silverton. — Immediately after the drought had broken 
up the former activity in the district was renewed, and prospecting was 
continued with even greater zeal than before. Not only was prospecting, or 
the more superficial exploration of the mineral deposits, carried on, but shafts 
were sunk, levels driven, and parcels of ore raised and despatched from the 
field to Europe for treatment. The mineral leases applied for at Silverton 
during the year embraced altogether an area of 20,000 acres, and the mining 
revenue received totalled £11,672. There were also issued at Silverton 1,222 
mineral licenses, 937 business licenses, and 114 miners' rights. 

A Census taken by the police during the latter portion of the year 
showed the town to possess a population of 1,745 souls ; while the Warden 
gives it as his opinion that scattered all over the field there must have been 
4^000 persons. 

Furnamoota surveyed. — The township of Pumamoota was surveyed, 
its position being determined by a prolific soakage which occurs in the centre 
of the reserve fronting the main street. 

At Broken Hill the sinking of Rasp's Shaft was proceeded with, but 
the nature of the ore met with was not at all encouraging. By some strange 
vicissitude of fortune the prospectors would seem to have selected for their 
first attack the poorest portion of the lode, as for a long time the ore won 
only yielded from 10 to 12 ozs. of silver per ton. It may be that the spot 
was chosen because the lode in its neighbourhood as regards its width 
resembled somewhat the narrow veins then being worked in the ApoUyon 
Valley ; perhaps the vastness of the outcrop elsewhere may have made them 
doubtful of its genuineness. 



10 

So it happened that for a long time the shares were at a discount, 
and their possessors were continually ofifej'ing them for sale at prices which 
subsequent events showed to be ridiculously small. Who has travelled much 
in the Australian colonies and not met the individual who had a fourteenth 
share of what was afterwards the Proprietary Mine offered him for a few 
pounds ? Well might a man consider such an experience an epoch in his 
life, and well might ho grieve over the opportunity he had lost in refusing 
the offer made to him, for but six years afterwards the market value of this 
same share, together with the amount paid in dividends and bonuses upon it, 
would have totalled over £1,250,000. 

In March the often referred to game of euchre was played by 
M'CuUoch and Cox at Mount Gipps Station. The former held at this time 
three-fourteenths shares in the mine, and, not placing any great value upon 
them, was anxious to sell one share to the latter. Cox stipulated that the 
price should be £100, but M'CuUoch wanted £150. It was eventually 
decided that a game of euchre be played, and the question as to whether the 
higher or lower price should be given to the vendor decided by the result. 
I have reason to believe that the game was won by M^Culloch. 

Chloride of Silver found at BrolLen Hill.— Towards the end of 

the year rich chloride of silver ore was found in the bottom of Rasp's Shaft, 
and also in the outcrop south of this shaft, by an aboriginal, " Harry," in the 
service of Mr. Jamieson, who was managing the property. The discovery of 
this rich ore led to the immediate enhancement in value of the shares, and as 
further explorations resulted in fresh masses of rich ore being discovered, so 
the value of the shares continued to increase. 

It was at this time that the great Broken Hill Mine first commenced 
to stand oat propainently before all others on the silver-field. Certainly as 
regards its output it was slightly behind the Day Dream, where 4,000 tons 
of ore, valued at £54,000, were raised during the year, as against 3,000 tons, 
valued at £42,866, from Broken Hill. But the richness of the former mine 
was evident from the date of its discovery, and its exploitation was vigorously 
pushed forward, while prospecting the latter had been a prolonged operation. 
As soon, however, as pockets of rich silver ore had been found at Broken 
Hill, the magnitude of the outcrop, and consequently the abundant scope for 
exploration, caused this lode to be looked on with more favour than any 
other. It was not the probable great future before the Barrier Banges 
silver-field which people, even in far distant countries, now commenced to 
discuss, but that of the Broken Hill Silver mines. 



11 

1885. 

Formation of Broken Hill Proprietary Silver-mining Com- 
pany. — On the 10th August the present Broken Hill Proprietary Company- 
was floated. "The prospectus issued was to form a company of 16,000 
shares of £20 per share; the fourteen shareholders receiving 1,000 shares 
each, paid up to £19 ; the remaining 2,000 were offered to the public at £9 
per share paid on allotment, and then considered as paid up to £19, after 
which all shares alike were liable to a call of £1 on formation of this 
company. Three thousand pounds was to be paid (in addition to the shares) 
to the original proprietors for expenses previously incurred. Thus it will be 
seen that on the formation of the present company only £15,000 was available 
for all purposes."^ 

On the 31st January, 1889, at an extraordinary meeting of the share- 
holders it was decided to increase the number of shares from 16,000 to 
160,000, by dividing each £20 share into 10 shares of the nominal value of £2 
each, these being issued as paid up to £1 : 18 : 0. Again, on the 3rd January, 
1890, another extraordinary meeting was held, when it was decided to 
increase the number of shares from 160,000 to 800,000, and proportionally 
reduce their nominal value from £2 to 8s., and also to issue 160,000 new 
shares. 

During the interval of rather less than seven years intervening between 
the inception of the company and the end of May, 1892, it has raised 
984,349 tons of ore, from which it has extracted 36,512,455 ounces of silver, 
and 151,945 tons of lead, and paid to its shareholders in dividends and bonuses 
amounts aggregating £3,896,000. 

Elsewhere in the district mining was actively carried on. A blast 
furnace was erected and blown in at the Pinnacles Mine. Furnaces were also 
put up upon the Day Dream Mine, and, being kept continuously in blast, 
a considerable amount of ore was put through them. 

Discovery of Tin. — ^Tin, in the form of cassiterite, was discovered 
on Poolamacca Run in a granitic dyke; but the dryness of the season 
prevented prospecting for the mineral on a large scale, and two years had 
yet to elapse before the great rushes to Waukeroo and Euriowie took place. 

♦ Ann. Rcpt. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1886 [1887], p. 102. 



12 

1886. 
Smelting commenced at Broken Hill.— T^vo furnaces having 

now arrived at Broken Hill, smelting operations were commenced, while 
before the end of the year four water jacket smelters, having each a 
capacity of 30 tons, were in blast. The management of the mine was 
transferred to Mr. S. R. Wilson ; and Mr. H. II. Schlapp, who had previously 
occupied the position of Superintendent of the Pueblo Smelting and Refining 
Works in Colorado, U.S.A., was appointed metallurgist. 

Township of Silverton. — Silverton reached its climacteric in the 
early part of this year, when the Warden estimated its population at 2,000 
souls. The permanency of the field appearing to be assured, the tents, 
shanties, and weatherboard houses began to give place to more substantial 
buildings of brick and stone. In the month of April, however, the Day 
Dream smelters shut down, and the town began to decline and yield ground 
to its formidable rival. Broken Hill.- 

Difficulty as regards the Settlement at Broken Hill.— Imme- 
diately the rich finds of silver ore at Broken Hill took place, a rush of men 
set in there, and some few people, by virtue of the miners' rights which they 
held, pegged out quarter-acre blocks for residential purposes. On the 3rd 
Octobur, 1885, the Government issued a proclamation, under the 26th Section 
of the Mining Act of 1884, reserving the greater portion of the land upon 
which the present town stands from occupation under miners' rights or 
business licenses, and the departmental surveyor started to set out the 
principal streets of what was afterwards the town of Broken Hill. Within a 
very short time several thousand people were camped around the mines ; and, 
as month after month passed without the Government doing anything 
further in the matter of providing them with a town, they, in defiance of the 
proclamation, occupied the reserved land and erected buildings upon it, which 
were in some instances of considerable value. At one time the Government 
decided to sell the town lands, and in February, 1887, a Oazette notice was 
issued, stating that in the month of April they would be put up to auction, 
while the upset price of each lot, together with the value at which any 
improvements upon it were assessed, were given. 

The auction sale never took place, and the authorities, after the matter 
had been in abeyance for nearly two years, finally decided to put an end to 
the difficulty by throwing open the land to occupation at 12*30 p.m. on the 



14 

Act for a breach of the 104 Regulation, which, if the case be proven, renders 
the defendant liable to a fine of £10 and costs, or as an alternative three 
months' imprisonment with hard labour in Wilcannia (Jaol.'* 

(Signed) WYMAN BROWN, 

Silverton, 16th September, 1887. Warden." 

This notice had the effect which its originator desired. In reading it 
the intending jumper learnt the hazardous nature of the task he had set 
himself, while the holders of the town lots received the best possible advice 
as to the means by which they could retain their property. At the time 
fixed by the Government everybody quietly pegged out his ground, and but 
little disorder occurred. However, it must have been a strange sight to see 
all the occupants of town lands, without respect to trade or calling, at a given 
moment commence to go round their land, erect comer posts, and excavate 
the necessary trenches. The townspeople one and all owed a debt of 
gratitude to Mr. Wyman Brown for the zeal with which he had worked all 
through the dispute to ensure an equitable settlement. 

The Government gave to the town the euphonious name of Willyama, 
an aboriginal term signifying a hill with a broken contour ; but excepting in 
official papers it has always been called Broken Hill. 

Tin Rush to Enriowie and Waukeroo.— This was the year of 

the ** tin boom," when a great rush took place to Euriowie and Waukeroo, 
where tin had been discovered two years previously. Euriowie was proclaimed 
a township, and before the end of the year it had a population of 500 souls 
resident within its boundaries ; while among the buildings were a police 
station, two banks, six hotels, and several stores. 

Formation of Block 14 Silver-mining Company.— Block 14 

was now sold by the Proprietary Mine owners to a company — the Broken 
Hill Proprietary Block 14 Silver-mining Company — that was formed to 
undertake its exploitation. The capital of the new company was £500,000, 
distributed among 100,000 shares, which were issued as paid up to £4 10s. 
96,000 of these shares were distributed pro rata among the shareholders of 
the parent company, while the remaining 4,000 unallotted shares became* the 
property of the new company. 



9 

At one time serious apprehensions were entertained as to what would 

« 

happen to the population congregated, in Silverton should the dry weather 
continue much longer. Fortunately, however, rain fell towards the end 
of the summer, and the immediate necessities of the people were relieved. 
The drought was not altogether unproductive of good, in so far as it taught 
the residents the folly of relying solely on such precarious supplies of water 
as were to be obtained in the soakagcs of the various creeks, and they 
commenced to dig out tanks and races in order to conserve the rain-water at 
the surface. 

Growth of Silverton. — Immediately after the drought had broken 
up the former activity in the district was renewed, and prospecting was 
continued wdth even greater zeal than before. Not only was prospecting, or 
the more superficial exploration of the mineral deposits, carried on, but shafts 
were sunk, levels driven, and parcels of ore raised and despatched from the 
field to Europe for treatment. The mineral leases applied for at Silverton 
during the year embraced altogether an area of 26,000 acres, and the mining 
revenue received totalled £11,672. There were also issued at Silverton 1,222 
mineral licenses, 937 business licenses, and 114 miners' rights. 

A Census taken by the police dm'ing the latter portion of the year 
showed the town to possess a population of 1,745 souls ; while the Warden 
gives it as his opinion that scattered all over the field there must have been 
4,000 persons. 

Purnamoota surveyed. — The township of Pumamoota was surveyed, 
its position being determined by a prolific soakage which occurs in the centre 
of the reserve fronting the main street. 

At Broken Hill the sinking of Rasp's Shaft was proceeded with, but 
the nature of the ore met with was not at all encouraging. By some strange 
vicissitude of fortune the prospectors would seem to have selected for their 
first attack the poorest portion of the lode, as for a long time the ore won 
only yielded from 10 to 12 ozs. of sUver per ton. It may be that the spot 
was chosen because the lode in its neighbourhood as regards its width 
resembled somewhat the narrow veins then being worked in the Apollyon 
Valley ; perhaps the vastness of the outcrop elsewhere may have made them 
doubtful of its genuineness. 




16 

Fire at Broken HUl. — ^Again, the year will always be memorable at 
Broken Hill as that one during which the great fire took place. Owing to 
the dryness of the atmosphere, the great heat prevailing in the summer 
months, and the combustible nature of the greater number of the houses, 
fires have always been, and are now of frequent occurrence. The flames were 
first seen issuing from a building known as Mather's Chambers, and it was 
not until an interval of three hours had elapsed, and the whole of the build- 
ings forming the Avestern side of Argent street which were situated between 
Oxide and Cliloride streets, had been destroyed, that they were extinguished. 
Like some other great conflagrations wliich have occurred elsewhere, and 
are recorded in history, this one was not altogether accomi)anied with bad 
results to the community at large. The land thus suddenly cleared in the 
centre of the town was too valuable to be allowed to remain long imcovered, 
and in a short time, where weatherboard houses and galvanized iron shanties 
previously were found, handsome edifices of brick and stone were erected. 

Formation of Block 10 Mine. — In March the Broken nill Proprie- 
tary Block 10 Company was formed for the purpose of taking over Block 10 
from the Proprietary Company. Its capital was £1,000,000 in 100,000 
shares of £10 each. The shareholders in the parent company received in 
payment 96,000 shares, while the remaining 4,000 shares became the property 
of the new company. 

1889. 

Growth of Broken Hill. — Prom its inception the towTi of Broken 
Hill had rapidly progressed in population, and noAv we find the Warden 
reporting it as containing 17,000 souls. 

First " strike " of Miners. — During the year the first of the three 
'* strikes" w^hich have occurred among the minors and other operatives 
engaged upon the larger mines took place. As far back as the year 1884, a 
" union " had been formed among the miners working upon the then newly- 
discovered Barrier Ranges Silver-field. This union grew in importance with 
the field ; but had never been recognised in any w ay by the mining 
companies, who engaged their men irrespective of whether they were unionists 
or not. A good deal of friction arose from time to time between those miners 
belonging to the association and those who did not. At the same time a 
strong feeling of unrest among the labouring classes was making itself 



11 

1886. 

Formation of Broken Hill Proprietary Silver-mining Com- 
pany. — On the 10th August the present Broken Hill Proprietary Company 
was floated. "The prospectus issued was to form a company of 16,000 
shares of £20 per share; the fourteen shareholders receiving 1,000 shares 
each, paid up to £19 ; the remaining 2,000 were offered to the puhlic at £9 
per share paid on allotment, and then considered as paid up to £19, after 
which all shares alike were liahle to a call of £1 on formation of this 
company. Three thousand pounds was to he paid (in addition to the shares) 
to the original proprietors for expenses previously incurred. Thus it will he 
seen that on the formation of the present company only £15,000 was available 
for aU purposes."* 

On the 31st January, 1889, at an extraordinary meeting of the share- 
holders it was decided to increase the number of shares from 16,000 to 
160,000, by dividing each £20 share into 10 shares of the nominal value of £2 
each, these being issued as paid up to £1 : 18 : 0. Again, on the 3rd January, 
1890, another extraordinary meeting was held, when it was decided to 
increase the number of shares from 160,000 to 800,000, and proportionally 
reduce their nominal value from £2 to 8s., and also to issue 160,000 new 
shares. 

During the interval of rather less than seven years intervening between 
the inception of the company and the end of May, 1892, it has raised 
984,349 tons of ore, from which it has extracted 36,612,455 ounces of silver, 
and 151,945 tons of lead, and paid to its shareholders in dividends and bonuses 
amounts aggregating £3,896,000. 

Elsewhere in the district mining was actively carried on. A blast 
furnace was erected and blown in at the Pinnacles Mine. Furnaces were also 
put up upon the Day Dream Mine, and, being kept continuously in blast, 
a considerable amount of ore was put through them. 

Discovery of Tin. — Tin, in the form of cassiterite, was discovered 
on Poolamacca Run in a granitic dyke; but the dryness of the season 
prevented prospecting for the mineral on a large scale, and two years had 
yet to elapse before the great rushes to Waukeroo and Euriowie took place. 

♦ Ann. Rept. Dcpt. Mines N. S. Wales for 1886 [1887], p. 102. 



18 

1890. 

Second "Strike" of Miners.— In September the second strike, 
which was of longer duration than the one occurring in the previous year, 
took place. The trouble was brought about indirectly by the great maritime 
strike, which at this time was fiercely raging at Sydney, Melbourne, and 
other leading Australian ports. Generally speaking, the mine owners may 
be said to have been in sympathy with the employers who formed one party 
in the great industrial conflct, while the miners sympathised with their 
fellow workmen and unionists who formed the other side. The mine owners, 
while recognising the unions composed of their own operatives, declined to 
acknowledge or to be in any way influenced by other outside trade organiza- 
tions. They refused to employ only those ships manned by union crews to 
carry their lead and silver from the South Australian ports to Sydney, where 
it was transferred into ocean-going steamers. Hence the supplies of bullion 
began to accumulate upon the mines, and at the same time a difficulty was 
experienced in obtaining the supplies of timber for use underground and of 
coke for the blast furnaces. Matters came to a crisis on Friday, 5th 
September, when representatives of the Proprietary, British, Block 14, 
Block 10, Junction, Victoria Cross, Round Hill, South, and Central Mines 
met in Melbourne and decided to close down at once all the mines except the 
Proprietary which was to discharge its hands on the following Wednesday. 
The miners on hearing of the owners decision formed a strike committee and 
ceased work. The trouble lasted four weeks, and at the end of this period a 
compromise was effected on the terms of the following agreement : — 

1. That in the event of any future trouble existing, the point or points at issue shall be 
referred to a Board of Arbitration of equal numbers of either side, say, three ; and failing their 
being able to agree, that an umpire be appointed, who shall either be a Chief Justice or a Judge 
of fthe Supreme Court of any of the Australian Colonies ; and, in the event of the Board not 
being able to agree, the Judge to be chosen as umpire ; or, upon his declining to act, the 
selection shall be made by lot out of the list of Judges of the various Colonies. The decision 
when given to be final and binding on both sides. The award to take effect from date of notice 
of arbitration on either side. 

2. That until the said Board, as provided above, shall have been appointed and delivered 
its decision, work in every branch of the mine shall continue as is usual, without let or 
hindrance. 

3. That the Amalgamated Miners' Association, Barrier Colonial District, No. 3, agrees 
that no question of any kind in connection with any other labour organisation shall form the 
basis of dispute, and only a question affecting the mines and the employees is to be considered a 
matter on which arbitration shall be resorted to when trouble takes place ; the meaning of this 
being, that in the event of a Trades Council or any labour body outside the A.M.A. of Barrier 
Colonial District, No. 3, calling the latter out for a dispute foreign to the mine or men, they will 
refuse to come out, and will not raise such questions as between the mines and themselves. 



13 

20th September, 1887. This course was probably the best that could have 
been adopted in the interests of those illegally residing upon the reserved 
land ; but it was only to be expected that such persons should look forward 
to the 20th September with considerable anxiety ; for they argued the present 
anomalous condition has been brought about entirely by the procrastination 
of the Government, and, in equity, we have a right to our property, yet, on 
the land being thrown open, anybody in default of our doing so before him 
may "peg out," and thereby possess himself of our groimd with the 
improvements we have placed upon it. Only about a dozen men who had 
entered on the land, prior to the issuing of the proclamation under the 26th 
Section of the Mining Act, had any title to their property. At one time it 
was apprehended that the matter would not be settled without serious rioting 
taking place ; and that the disturbances would be followed by an abundant 
crop of litigation. The danger, however, was averted by the ingenious notice 
written and published by the Warden, Mr. Wyman Brown, which was as 
follows : — 

"In view of the town lands at Broken Hill beiDg thrown open for 
lawful occupation under miners' rights or business licenses, I desire to point 
out for general information the provisions and bearings of Mining Board 
B/Cg. 104, which is as follows : — * No person shall take forcible possession of 
any land occupied by any other person. Any person who may desire to take 
possession of any land unlawfully occupied shall, if his right to take possession 
be disputed, apply to the Warden to inquire into such dispute.' 

" Now I have been advised by the Mines Department that the procla- 
mation throwing open this land dates from 12*30 p.m., or half an hour after 
mid-day (Sydney time) on the 20th inst. Such being the case, I would 
advise every occupant of improved land to mark out in accordance with 
Mining Board Beg. 102 as soon as possible after the hour named, and obtain 
conditional registration within three days from such marking, and further to 
watch their land and allow no outsider to enter or mark it out without dis- 
puting his right to do so. This can be done by simply watching the land for 
two or three hours before and after noon. If any person should insist on 
marking off any land after his right to do so is disputed by the occupant, I 
would then advise the person in occupation to gently remove the other ; if 
after that any attempt to enter or mark out the land is made, then simply 
take proceedings against the jumper under the 116th Section of the Mining 




20 

Apollyon Valley, was a serious blow to the pioneer township of Silverton ; 
which, being overshadowed by its rival, Broken Hill, had been steadily 
retrogressing since 1886. The raising and carting of flux from the deposits 
of " rubble'' limestone which occurred in the neighbourhood of Acacia and 
Silverton, gave employment to a large number of hands, both as quarrymen 
and teamsters, and a large proportion of the earnings of these men were 
si)ent in the latter town. The Tarrawingee stone, after the completion of the 
railway, could be quarried and deliverGd in large quantities on the mines at 
a price Avhich did not exceed that obtaining for the rubble flux, while as 
regards composition it was immeasurably superior ; hence the decay of the 
flux industry at the places named. 

The Smaller Mineral Fields.— The smaller mining townships at 
Pumamoota, Nevada, Rockwell, Euriowie, and Waukcroo, which at one time 
had been in a flourishing condition, with large populations, now became 
practically deserted ; for in none of these districts were the expectations as 
to the permanency of the rich mineral deposits realised. In the case of the 
narrow silver lodes, operations were checked on account of the richer ore 
either " pinching out" at a short distance beneath the surface, or passing 
into a, comparatively speaking, low grade sulphide. I have pointed out 
elsewhere that I am of opinion that in many places small syndicates of 
working miners might make wages, and divide some profits, by continuing to 
work some of the claims which at the period of my survey were lying idle. 

The failure of the sanguine views which were held by many in regard 
to the tin deposits is due to a different cause. The " lodes" have not proved 
to be wedge-shaped, nor have they been found at the greatest depth at which 
they have at present been worked (200 feet), to yield less ore than they did 
at the surface. The men who flocked to the tin-fields had a preconceived 
notion, and regarded the ore deposits as fissure lodes. They assumed that 
the rich patches of ore discovered on the surface were but the outcrops of 
" ore shoots," and bitter was their disappointment when, after driving below, 
they found that the tin-stone occurred in pockets of no very considerable 
size. One prominent miner, who had been brought up amongst the tin- 
mines of Cornwall, likened the Euriowie granite dykes, with their occasional 
bunches of coarsely crystalline cassiteritc, to the fissure lodes with their quartz 
contents and shoots of — for the most part — finely disseminated tin ore 
occurring in his natal county. 



21 

1892. 

Great Drought. — Within the first half of the previous year a con- 
siderable amount of rain had fallen, but the showers were light and of short 
duration, so the various tanks had not been much benefited in consequence. 
From July until the end of the year, with the exception of a small quantity 
during a thunderstorm, no rain fell at all upon the Barrier Ranges, and so 
the commencement of 1892 found the people of Broken Hill in the middle of 
an extremely hot summer and with very little water available, either for 
domestic purposes, or for use in the various reduction w^orks upon the mines. 
People now commenced to get alarmed, for the drought appeared to be a 
more severe one than had ever previously been experienced, while the 
population of the town had continued to increase, until now it totalled 
22,500. 

Fortunately, however, during a thunderstorm in the summer a large 
tank, which had been constructed close to the railway at a place called 
Mingary, distant from the border of this colony 30 miles, and from Broken 
Hill 70 miles, was filled with water. The South Australian Government, who 
had constructed the reservoir, not having any immediate use for the Avater, 
consented to sell it to the Municipality of Broken Hill. The water was 
pumped up into iron tanks placed upon railway trucks, and one or more 
trains, made up of trucks so loaded, were run daily into Broken Hill. On 
reaching its destination the water was siphoned into a large iron cistern 
prepared for its reception, and from tliis tank it was rim into the carts of the 
carriers who distributed it among the consumers. 

The bringing of water from South Australia did not prevent the 
populace from enduring great hardships ; for the price of the commodity 
was so great that the strictest economy had to be exercised in using it. 
The intense heat— day after day the mercury Avould reach 100° F. in the 
jshade, and on more than one occasion it was as great as 116° F. — ^the hot 
sultry nights, and the prevalent duststorms, all tended to make the want of 
sufficient water more keenly felt than it would have been at other places and 
under other conditions. 

The mines now began to run short in their supplies of water, and it 
was feared, lest in their inability to get a sufficient supply for the blast 
furnaces, they would be compelled to suspend operations altogether. Never 
before, I suppose, did a number of mine managers have a more harassing time 
than those domiciled at this period on the larger mines which possessed 
reduction works. 



22 

A large supply of water had been previously discovered at Acacia. It 
was found that the recent deposits of limestone, which at this locality capped 
the Palaeozoic rocks, were saturated with water, which they would yield to 
wells. Tour of the largest Broken Hill Mining Companies — The Proprietary, 
Block 10, Block 14, and the British — formed themselves into a trust, and 
bought from their owners the leases at Acacia upon which the water could 
be obtained; at the same time they sank wells, erected pumps, and laid a pipe- 
line to Broken Hill, which was distant eight miles. The amount of water 
which could be pumped daily from Acacia was limited, and would not have 
suflBced for the requirements of the mines during the latter portion of the 
drought had not other supplies been obtainable. In both directions along 
the line of lode the Proprietary Mine authorities laid down pipes to any of 
those mines which had water in their shafts. These lines of piping extended 
to the White Lead Mine in the south-west, and to the Potaosi and New 
Cosgrove's Mine in the north-east. The water famine necessitated the 
Proprietary Company alone incurring altogether an extra outlay of £25,000. 

History of Broken Hill Water Supply.— It will be convenient 

here to give a short history of the Broken Hill Water Supply. Four 
methods of obtaining water in this district are available. 

(1.) Tlie sinking of shallow Wells in the beds of creeks and obtaining 
a supply of water by soakage. 

Soakages. — When the mineral-field first sprang into existence nearly 
all the water was obtained in this manner. The supply, however, which could 
be obtained from this source was totally inadequate for the requirements of 
a populous city ; and, moreover, the quality of the waters was not always of 
the best, for they frequently contained considerable quantities of magnesian 
and other salts, which seriously militated against their value for domestic 
and steam purposes. 

As an example of the analysis by Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, P.C.S.,* of a 
deleterious water obtained from a soakage, I give that of a sample obtained 
from Stephens Creek. 

Grains per gallon. 

Soluble aaline matter Q'4^Q 

Insoluble mineral matter ... ... ... ... 11*284 

Loss on ignition ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3*640 

Total solids 21*420 

Pree ammonia nil. parts per 100,000 

Organic or albuminoid ammonia '066 „ 

Chlorine 3*8 grains per gallon. 

• Analyses of some of the Well, Spring, Mineral, and Artesian Waters of New South Wales, &c. Joum. R, Soc, 
N. S. Wales for 1892 [1893], xxvi, p. 86. 



17 

apparent throughout the Australian Colonies. In every direction new 
unions were being formed, old ones strengthened, and a general organisation 
of the workers was taking place. The isolated position of Broken Hill did 
not prevent its miners becoming imbued with the same ambitions as their 
fellow-workmen elsewhere, and a consolidation of their societies, together 
with their recognition by the employers, was thought to be necessary. The 
strike commenced early in November, and only lasted ten days; for on 
delegates representing the large mining companies meeting those representing 
the Miners' Association, an agreement was drafted out and agreed to. The 
terms of this agreement were as follows : — 

It being distinctly understood that the only question at issue is the employment of 
Union or Non-Union men, it is hereby mutually agreed between the Officers of the A.M. A. 
and the Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Limited, the British Broken Hill Proprietary 
Company, Limited, the Broken Hill Proprietary Block 14 Company, Limited, the Broken Hill 
Proprietary Block 10 Company, Limited, and the Broken Hill North S.M. Company, Limited. 

1. That the A.M.A. will, as early as possible, take means to have the Barrier District 
made a Colonial District, so that the Executive may control their own afEairs and draw up such 
rules as will be approved of by a Committee of Managers. 

2. Shift bosses and foremen are not to be compelled to join the Union but may form a 
Union for themselves. 

8. The surfacemen and furnace hands can form a Union of their own and may bo affiliated 
with the Amalgamated Miners' Association. 

4. Tradesmen and Mechanics, already members of recognised Societies, are not to be 
compelled to join the Amalgamated Miners* Association. 

5. The Companies undertake to collect the dues for each of the Unions on pay-day, and 
hand the same over to the duly appointed officer of the Union, who will be present on pay-day. 

6. Work to be resumed on the Mines forthwith — that is, so far as practicable. 

7. It is understood that no local Union will be recognised by the employers unless 
exceeding the number of one hundred (100). If below that number permission must be obtained 
from the Amalgamated Miners* Executive and Managers* Association before it can be formed. 

8. All past differences to be forgotten. 

It will be seen that the essence of the agreement was the recognition 
of the Amalgamated Miners' Association and its affiliated unions by the 
mine owners. 

Block 14 Silver-mine commenced to pay dividends in the early portion 
of the year. Rich patches of ore were discovered in the British, Junction, 
and Central mines. 



28 

non-Union labour for the purpose of continuing to put out ore. Meanwhile 
the men on strike placed a cordon of pickets on the boundaries of the mine 
leases for the purpose of preventing any men who should be so inclined 
from proceeding to work. From other labour organisations throughout the 
Colonies, and from various individuals, they, from time to time, received 
assistance, and hence were able to give relief to those of their number who 
needed it. In order to do as much good as possible with the money collected, 
they organised a co-operative store, and, in the place of money, distributed 
provisions and other necessaries. 



Re-opening of the Mines. — On the I7th August the mine-owners 
issued a manifesto in which they stated that the mines would be re-opened 
on the 26th of the month, when they would be prepared to engage any 
efficient workmen, irrespective of whether they belonged to a Union or not, 
but in their management of the mines they refused to be controlled by Union 
rules. They further stated, that wliilo reserving to themselves the power to 
let contracts for the stoping of ore, they did not propose to make any 
alteration in the rate of wages which had prevailed previously to the strike. 
The wages were as follows : — 







MecJ^anics and Surface Hands. 


















B. 


d. B. 


d. 






Engineers 


••• 


• • • • • * 


• • • 


From 11 


0tol2 


pel 


r shift of 8 hours. 


Masons and Bricklayers 


... 


. « . • • • 


• • • 


„ 10 


„ 12 





») 


n 


Carpenters 


• • • 


• . • ... 


• • • 


,, 10 


0„ 12 





n 


>i 


Blacksmiths 


• • • 


. • • • • • 


• • • 


„ 10 


0,. 12 





97 


>i 


„ Strikers ... 


... 


. ■ • ... 


. • • 




8 


4 


»> 


)9 


Engine-drivers (stationary) 


••• 


• • • • 1 1 


• • • 




10 





>♦ 


>i 


„ (hoisting) 


... 


> • . • • • 


• • • 


From 10 


Otoll 





n 


99 


Firemen 


... 


• • • • • • 


. • . 




9 





91 


9» 


„ Assistants 


• * • 


. • • ••■ 


• • • 




8 


4 


>i 


99 


Fitters 


• • • 


. • • . • • 


... 


From 10 


Otol2 





>» 


9} 


Machine-men (shop) ... 


• • • 


... • • • 


• • t 


,, 9 


„ 10 





n 


»> 


Boiler-makers 


• • • 


t • • • • • 


• • • 




12 





>i 


99 


Rivetters 


• • • 


• . • • • t 


• • • 


From 9 


Oto 10 





n 


99 


Tinsmiths 


• • • 


• • • . • • 


• • • 




10 





»> 


99 


Saw-mill men 


. • • 


( • • . • • 


• • • 


From 8 


4 to 10 





»i 


99 


7 Fnr uo A ri vt^-ra / K»c>u«'^* "f th*! time oroopied in clennin;: ) 
llUrae-UnVtrtJ 1 an.l harupsxins homes. ] ••• 


• • • 




8 


4 


)} 


99 


Labourers (all) 


... 


• • . ... 


• • • 




8 


4 


>i 


99 


Boys 


• • • 


. • ... 


• • • 


From 3 


Oto 7 


6 


i> 


99 



19 

4. I^x ccatnet? d^ef i^joi it«>pEi^ of eve «&ttZ! Se jil^inK. » liwKolwr^ 

pcMsibSe on iW rmzMis sines reiaeseited bj uiif CoLMvsftce. x^ suw xmx^ %>£ v^W!im^ ^ Ke&v^ 
ife pmcfit c«Bsidon of vi>ik to oi^ten. and lisjs iSie v««^^$ v^e^ ;ciMm::«v>csid sUI cvNMSt c^ 
a mretaee cf f ortT-«ix lioors, amiieed us fock^v^ : — Dtj s^iri^ 1(^1 Kxur^ : 7^ iisWffKXMei $luft 
on SftnudaTs to onlr wwk from 4 to 10 ;v.n^ Aztd xsie aajr-^'Ttg s&^t \>il McoIat t<> $tut Jk 4 jkm. 

and v<n^ tSl S xjn. : all otber dars caa Mcyaoars az>i S«nsr>£aT^ tv^ Se full :is!<. 

« « * 

6. That die XoTember , 1SS9. agTC^snesii a$ ii sxaskcs K\ii cxxi as ^i^Molox^^ and iW 
cfHwKtkmg tbereon be nplield bj all tbe ocdpanses ^>^p:y^se&tl^i at 1^ CoeitesvsK>^. ^nM" 
XoTember. 1SS9, agreement pn>Tidevl f .>r a ftiH wcw>§iii*ivv:i v\f all FaxMW^^ 

7. Tliax tbe foregoing shall come into f oi>cie v^n the Fon Pirse Wvxrkiria: Men's A$^viation 
agreeing to ship by ocean-going steamers without fonher tivvjiV^e the bolliv^n nv>w at iKat port 
and hereafter to be produced when work is i>e9uaed a< the S!i;net^ ; al^cv to ha&d^ and kv^vv 
timber now afloat or to be shipped in sailing ressels as 2>^ttin^i : this clau;$)e t^^ ^ppV ^^^^T ^^^^^ 
the maritime strike is adjusted, when the decision come to will applr to Pv>rt Pine as a natural 
conaequence. 

5. On the abore undertaking bj the Port Pirio working men Kuiur supplied in writings 
orders to be giren to resume working forthwith, and the men employed as rapidly as ciiv^ura* 
stances will admit. 

9. That eren in the event of a delay at Port Pirie on the signing of the agrwmont^ it is 
understood that the managers be instructed to start all dead work forthwith ; al«^> the pum|vm 
and that the necessary men to do so be put on. This dau^^ only to be subject to appiv^val of 
the Labour Defence Committee at Broken Hill. 

10. That all past differences are to be forgotten. 

The chief points embodied in this agreement are — (1) The isolation 
of the Barrier Ranges Miners' Union from labour associations existing else- 
where ; and (2) the referring of subsequent disputes to arbitration. 



1S91. 

Tarrawingee Tramway. — In May, the Tarrawingeo Tramway was 
formally opened. This was a narrow gauge railway, 3 feet C inches, which 
was carried out from Broken Hill for a distance of 40 miles in a northerly 
direction to a spot previously known to the Aboriginees as Torrowangeo, for 
the purpose of bringing in crystalline limestone from the bods of this 
material which occurred there. 

Decline of Silverton. — The opening-up of railway communicaliou 
with Tarrawingee, coupled with the almost total cessation of mining opera- 
tions at Umberumberka, and the general neglect of the mines in the 



26 

water ; against them, however, was the great initial cost of the plant and 
pipe-lines, and the subsequent heavy pumping charges. The Darling River 
is distant from Broken Hill about 65 miles, and is situated 900 feet belo# it. 

Stockdale'8 Scheme. — The first scheme that was put forward was 
commonly known as ** Stockdale*s." Its promoters obtained from Parliament 
in 1889 an Act which, by conferring upon them certain rights and monopolies, 
prevented any rival schemes being advanced. The " Stockdale '' Act of 
Parliament expired by effluxion of time in October, 1891, without any attempt 
at all having been made to caiTy out the work which it was intended to 
promote. 

Immediately after the Water Supply Act was void, three applicants 
for new Bills came forward — the " Stockdale" Proprietary, the representatives 
of the larger mines, and the Company who were already engaged upon the 
Stephens Creek scheme. The mine-owners never appeared to be very 
anxious to carry out the work if they could but get it undertaken by others, 
and when the Stephens Creek Company agreed that the price of water should 
be fixed at 5s. per 1,000 gallons, they withdrew their application to Parlia- 
ment. The general public were in favour. of the Stephens Creek Water 
Supply Company, for they argued that the works in connection with its 
alternative system of supply (viz., from a reservoir nine miles from Broken 
Hill), now approaching completion, were sufficient evidence of their enterprise. 
However, this Company, while stating that the demand for the water would 
not be so great as they had anticipated, refused to permit the price they were 
to receive for the commodity from the ordinary consumer to be fixed at 5s., 
but stipulated that it should be regulated by the consumption, and should 
vary between the limits of 5s. and 10s. per 1,000 gallons. Parliament 
refused to sanction this substitution of a sliding-scale system of charges in 
lieu of the previous uniform rate, and the Bill asked for was refused. The 
" Stockdale '' Proprietary now agreed to carry out the work, and accept the 
5s. rate, which the other applicants had refused, and their Bill was passed. 
In order, however, to make sure of the bona fides of the promoters, a clause 
was inserted calling upon them to deposit £1,000 with the Colonial Treasurer 
within a month of the passing of the Bill, or otherwise it would be void. The 
deposit was never paid. 

About the middle of May, Stephens Creek received its supply of water, 
and all interest in the Darling schemes practically ceased. 




21 

1892. 

Great Drought. — Within the first half of the previous year a con- 
siderable amount of rain had fallen, but the showers were light and of short 
duration, so the various tanks had not been much benefited in consequence. 
From July until the end of the year, with the exception of a small quantity 
during a thunderstorm, no rain fell at all upon the Barrier Ranges, and so 
the commencement of 1892 found the people of Broken Hill in the middle of 
an extremely hot summer and with very little water available, either for 
domestic purposes, or for use in the various reduction works upon the mines. 
People now commenced to get alarmed, for the drought appeared to be a 
more severe one than had ever previously been experienced, while the 
population of the town had continued to increase, until now it totalled 
22,500. 

Fortunately, however, during a thunderstorm in the summer a large 
tank, which had been constructed close to the railway at a place called 
Mingary, distant from the border of this colony 30 miles, and from Broken 
Hill 70 miles, was filled with water. The South Australian Government, who 
had constructed the reservoir, not having any immediate use for the water, 
consented to sell it to the Municipality of Broken Hill. The water was 
pumped up into iron tanks placed upon railway trucks, and one or more 
trains, made up of trucks so loaded, were run daily into Broken Hill. On 
reaching its destination tlie water was siphoned into a large iron cistern 
prepared for its reception, and from this tank it was run into the carts of the 
carriers who distributed it among the consumers. 

The bringing of water from South Australia did not prevent the 
populace from enduring great hardships ; for the price of the commodity 
was so great that the strictest economy had to be exercised in using it. 
The intense heat— day after day the mercury would reach 100° F. in the 
jshade, and on more than one occasion it was as great as 116° F. — the hot 
sultry nights, and the prevalent duststorms, all tended to make the want of 
sufficient water more keenly felt than it would have been at other places and 
under other conditions. 

The mines now began to run short in their supplies of water, and it 
was feared, lest in their inability to get a sufficient supply for the blast 
furnaces, they would be compelled to suspend operations altogether. Never 
before, I suppose, did a number of mine managers have a more harassing time 
than those domiciled at this period on the larger mines which possessed 
reduction works. 



24 

(2.) By tlie construction of Dania and Tanks for the collection and 
retention of the surf ace flood-waters. 

Tanks and Dams. — This method is a good one, in so far as the water 
obtained is of excellent quality, Le.^ if the catchment area does not include 
any portion of a township ; but the small and uncertain character of the 
district rainfall ^ind the extreme rate of evaporation are circumstances against 
its adoption. 

Stephens Creek Waterworks. — Stephens Creek has a watershed 
which embraces about 170 square miles of country, so the volume of water 
which it brings down when in flood may be very considerable. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Piesse's Nob, and about nine miles north-east of Broken Hill, it 
flows between two low hills, which are distant from one another 900 feet. It 
was at this spot that the engineers of the Broken Hill Water Supply Company 
decided to erect an embankment, which would back the waters and prevent 
them being carried on to the plains beyond and dissipated. 

The first sod was turned by Sir Henry Parkes on the 16th April, 1890, 
amid great and general rejoicings, but it was not until January, 1891, that 
the work was regularly proceeded with. The works, which were erected 
under the superintendence of Mr. Christopher Jobson, engineer to the 
Company, were practically completed in May, 1892. The total area sub- 
merged when the reservoir is filled to the high- water mark is 1,740 acres, and 
the amount of water which it would contain under these conditions would be 
3,940,919,900 gallons. The earthen portion of the dam is 433 feet long, and 
the total length of the two by-washes 380 feet. The difference in altitude 
between the bottom of the catchment reservoir and that of the high-water 
mark of the supply reservoir at Broken Hill is 386 feet. The length of the 
pumping-main is a little over 10 miles. 

On the 29th May the prolonged drought broke up, and a little more 
than an inch of rain fell within twelve hours over the watershed of Stephens 
Creek, The good judgment of the engineers who conceived the scheme, and 
the skill with which the works had been carried out, were now amply demon- 
strated, for within a short time after the fall of this by no means large quantity 
of rain, 500,000,000 gallons of water were pent up behind the dam, while the 
leakage was insignificant. The amount of water stored would more than suffice, 
independent of other sources of supply, for all the requirements of Broken 
Hill for twelve months. So even supposing a drought of equal severity had 



26 

immediately followed the one just terminated, the possibility of the popu- 
lation having to endm^e any privation on account of a shortage of water was 
extremely remote. Soon after the water entered tlie reservoir, the fixing of 
the pumps, laying of the main, and reticulation of the town were completed, 
and the supplying of Broken Hill with water from Stephens Creek was an 
accomplished fact. 

(3.) The sinking of Wells in the Falceozoic rocks. 

Wells in Palaeozoic Rocks. — A small quantity of water could be 
obtained in this manner, but it was generally of a bad character. Again, it 
would frequently be found that on sinking a shaft or well, at a certain point, 
a considerable quantity of water would be encountered, but after a few days 
had elapsed it would cease flowing altogether. In cases like this an under- 
ground reservoir of water was probably struck, which, lacking replenishment 
that could only take place by the downward percolation of rain- water, soon 
became exhausted. 

(4.) The sinking of Boreholes through the Cretaceotis or younger sedi- 
^nentary rocks, with a view of obtaining an Artesian or Sub-artesian supply 
of water. 

Artesian Water. — This method of obtaining water has formed the 
subject of an exhaustive Report* by my Colleague Mr. W. Anderson, to which 
I will refer the reader for detailed information. It has also formed the 
subject of a paper contributed by Mr. S. Dixon to the Royal Society of South 
Australiat. Between the Barrier and Scropes Ranges the Palseozic rocks form 
a basin which is now filled with Post-Tertiary beds, which may be in part 
underlaid by Cretaceous strata. Mr. Anderson recommended the putting 
down of a number of boreholes to the bed-rock at various points across the 
basin. 

(5.) The pnmping of water into Broken Hill from the Biver Darling, 
or from the large Lakes which are from tiyne to time filled by its flood-waters. 

Water from the Darling. — Schemes which had this object in view 
were looked upon favourably, because when once carried out they would 
procure for the town at all times an unlimited supply of the purest possible 

• Bcport on Water Supply for Broken Hill. Ann, Sept, Dept, Mines and Agric. N.8, WaUs for 1891 
[1892], pp 264-259, map. 

t On a Subterranean Water Supply for the Broken Hill Mines. Trans. R. 8oc. 8, Ausfr., 1891, xiv, pp. 
200-209, pi. 10. 



30 

Arrest of the Leaders of the Miners.— The leaders of the men on 

strike were arrested on the 13th September, and charged with having 
conspired to prevent sulijects of the Queen from following their lawful 
occupations, and with having, by reason of these conspiracies and sedition, 
caused men to commit breaches of the peace and acts of rioting. Towards 
the end of October the trial of the accused took place at Deniliquin, and on 
the 29th of this month the jury brought in a verdict of guilty against six of 
them, whom the judge sentenced to terms of imprisonment with hard labour, 
which ranged from two months, in the case of the lesser offenders, to two 
years in the case of the greater. 

Collapse of the Strike. — The strike was now, as regards the mine- 
owners, virtually over, for they were able to obtain all the hands they wanted, 
and the weekly output of silver and lead began to assume its former 
dimensions. Finally, after many ineffectual attempts to obtain a conference, 
the men submitted altogether to the terms of their former employers, but 
their places had then been filled in a large measure with labourers obtained 
from extraneous sources, and work could only be found for some of them. 
So, during the latter part of the year, great distress prevailed in Broken Hill 
in consequence of a large number of its population being destitute of 
employment. 

Lead-poisoning. — From the commencement of mining at Broken Hill 
until the present date lead-poisoning has always been prevalent, more 
particularly among miners working in the carbonate of lead stopes and the 
smelter hands, but also in a lesser degree among the general population ; 
various domestic animals are likewise much affected by it. 

Appointment of a Board of Inquiry.— In August, 1891, Mr. 

J.H.Cann,M.L.A.,made mention in the Legislative Assembly of the prevalence 
of lead-poisoning among the miners in his electorate, within which the town 
and mines of Broken Hill are situated. Shortly afterwards the then Minister 
for Mines (the Honorable Sydney Smith) wrote a Cabinet minute respecting 
the appointment of a Board to investigate the causes and means of preventing 
the disease. In the early portion of 1892 the succeeding Minister for Mines 
(the Honorable T. M. Slattery) appointed a Board of four members — Messrs. 
J. Ashburton Thompson, M.IJ., D.r.ll., W. M. Hamlet, P.I.C.,F.C.S., John 



31 

Howell, and R. Sleatli.* The Board thus constituted being composed of a 
medical man, an analytical chemist, a mining manager, and a representative 
of the miners. 

Report and Recommcndatioiis of Board.— A considerable 

amount of evidence was taken, and in May, 1893, the report of the Boardt 
which, with appendices, is a very lengthy one, was published. The 
investigations showed that lead in appreciable quantities was present in the 
atmosphere, soil, and sometimes in the water at Broken Hill. The report 
concludes with a number of suggestions as to the methods which should be 
adopted for the future prevention of the disease, foremost among which are 
those enjoining cleanliness among the operatives ; the providing of changing- 
houses by the mine authorities in order that the men may not proceed home 
in their working clothes ; the laying of dust at all points where it is likely 
to accumulate in the mine galleries by means of water sprays ; the providing 
of an ample supply of uncontaminated drinking Avater underground ; the 
prevention, as far as possible, of the emission of fiue-dust from the smelter 
stacks. Mr. John Howell was not in accord with his Colleagues as to the 
substance of all that M-as contained in the Report, and his signature is not 
appended to it ; in an addendum he criticises adversely some of the 
preventive recommendations. 

* Mr. Sleath was succeeded on the Board by Mr. Josiah Thomas. 

+ Report of Board appointed to inquire into the Prevalence and Prevention of Lead-poisoning at the 
Broken Hill Silver-lead Mines. New South Walets Legislative Council Papers, 1893, c— 133 a. (Folio. Sydney, 
1893. By Authority.) 



32 



CHAPTER II. 

Physical Geography and Meteorology. 

Introductory. 

The Barrier Ranges Mineral District consists of a belt of country 
running in a north-east direction from Thackaringa, Balaclava, and Rock- 
well to Corona and Euriowie. These limits include an area about 70 
miles long and 30 miles broad. The Barrier Range, which forms the 
western boundary of this area, rises abruptly to a height of from 200 to 300 
feet from the Tertiary and Post-Tertiary plains at its base. These plains 
extend as far as the South Australian border, and a distance of 50 miles has 
to be traversed west of this border before their monotony is relieved by an 
outcropping range of Palaeozoic rocks. The eastern boundary of the metal- 
liferous area also consists of Tertiary plains ; but the passage from the hills to 
the plains is more gradual than is the case on the western boundary, while 
the plains are of lesser extent. 

The area described consists of ranges of hills with rounded and occa- 
sionally broken outlines rising, in some cases abruptly, from spacious flats, 
which divide one range from another. Tlie ranges consist, for the most part, 
of crystalline schists, slates, and conglomerates, and sometimes of coarsely 
crj^stalline granite. The flats are composed of gravels and clays, which are 
generally hidden by deposits of nodular limestone and by a fine loam. 

The conformation of the country is due in part to certain beds or 
masses of rock resisting the attack of the denuding forces better than their 
neighbours, and in part to mountain-making forces which have thrown the 
schists into numerous flexures. 

TVatersheds. 
The country is divided into two watersheds, drained respectively 
by the creeks emptying themselves on to the Avcstern plains in one case, 
and the eastern plains on the other. The line dividing the two water- 
sheds starts on the south near the eastern boundary of the field, and 
pursues a northerly course until the town of Broken Hill is reached. After 
leaving this town it bears off to the west, and for a distance of 24 miles trends 



31 

Howell, and R. Sleatli.* The Board thus constituted being composed of a 
medical man, an analytical chemist, a mining manager, and a representative 
of the miners. 

Report and Recommendations of Board.— A considerable 

amount of evidence was taken, and in May, 1893, the report of the Boardt 
which, with appendices, is a very lengthy one, was published. The 
investigations showed that lead in appreciable quantities was present in the 
atmosphere, soil, and sometimes in the water at Broken Hill. The report 
concludes with a number of suggestions as to the methods which should be 
adopted for the future prevention of the disease, foremost among which are 
those enjoining cleanliness among the operatives ; the providing of changing- 
houses by the mine authorities in order that the men may not proceed home 
in their working clothes ; the laying of dust at all points where it is likely 
to accumulate in the mine galleries by means of water sprays ; the providing 
of an ample supply of uncontaminated drinking Avater underground ; the 
prevention, as far as possible, of the emission of fiue-dust from the smelter 
stacks. Mr. John Ilowell was not in accord with his Colleagues as to the 
substance of all that was contained in the llej^ort, and his signature is not 
appended to it ; in an addendum he criticises adversely some of the 
preventive recommendations. 

* Mr. Sleath was succeeded on the Board by Mr. Josiah Thomas. 

t Report of Board appointed to inquire into the Prevalence and Pi'cvention of Lead-poieoning at Iho 
Broken Hill Silver-lead Mines. New South Wales Legislative Council Papers, \^^Z, C—IZ'^ n, (Folio. Sydnoy, 
1893. By Authority.) 



84 

A few creeks Lave permanent waterholes, which may be either fed by 

springs issuing from the bedrock, or by a slow percolation taking place from 

saturated gravels situated at some point higher up.* In nearly all the creeks 

" soakages," which occur where a basin has been formed in the bedrock, are 

found. 

That some of these creeks have been pursuing their present course 

during a great lapse of time is evidenced by the deep channels produced by 

their action. Thus, Campbell's Creek, for the last six or seven miles of its 

course, runs between perpendicular cliffs having altitudes up to 300 feet. 

Vegetation. 
The hills are, for the most part, covered with mulga scrub, and the 
flats Avith saltbush. Along the banks and in the beds of the larger creeks 
gum-trees are found. As one views the landscape from an eminence the 
course of the creeks can, in many instances, be distinguished by the line of 
forest trees which accompany them. 

Scenery. 
The general aspect of the country during the greater portion of the 
year is not pleasing ; the surface of the hillsides is bare, and the foliage of 
the mulga and saltbush is covered with a thin coating of dust. Very shortly, 
however, after rain has fallen, the appearance of the country is completely 
changed. The foliage is delivered of its load of dust, and in consequence its 
dull and sombre appearance is in a great measure removed ; the many seeds 
contained in the soil, under the influence of warmth and moisture, quickly 
germinate, and a green carpet of herbage makes its appearance ; while the 
culminating point is reached when the lierbage bursts into bloom and the 
whole country side is rendered bright with many-coloured flowers. In fact, 
in an incredibly short space of time, the fall of an inch, or even a smaller 
measure of rain, will convert a veritable desert into a picturesque flower garden. 

Rainfall. 
The Barrier Ranges are situated on the borders of the large area of 
sparsely- watered country which forms Central Austijalia, and the air is in 
consequence invariably dry. Nearly all the rain which falls in the district is 
* brought by north-east winds from the Pacific Ocean. In the summer time 
valuable amounts of rain are also sometimes obtained during thunderstorms, 
which may occur when the wind is in any direction. The rains originating 
in this manner are, however, generally of local extent — it is not often that a 
thunderstorm will benefit the whole field. 



See alto p. 22. 



35 



Eainfall for the decade ending 1892. 



Year. 






Total rainfall, 
inches. 






Nomber of months during 
which no rain fell. 


1882 




t • • t • 


10-48 






3 


1883 






6-90 






2 


1884 






7-44 






none. 


1885 






13-67 






1 


1886 






10-08 






2 


1887 






1011 






2 


1888 




1 • • • • 


3-26 






4 


1889 






1615 






3 


1890 






12-00 






1 


1891 






9-25 






3 


1892 






8-98 






3 



Evaporation. 
The rate of evaporation on the Barrier Ranges has not, as far as I am 
aware, been determined ; but some idea of its amount can be gathered by a 
consideration of that obtaining at other places in the western district of the 
Colony, which are similarly situated as regards climate. The average rate of 
evaporation per annum at Bourke is 60 inches, at Hay 42 inches, and at 
Walgett 56 inches. 

Temperature. 
The temperature varies between great limits — from below zero during 

some winter nights to \\&^ F. in the shade on some summer days ; the mean 
temperature is 65*5° F. The very hot weather of the summer months occurs 
when northerly and westerly winds, newly arrived from the Central Australian 
Desert, prevail. 

Dust Storms. 
Probably the most disagreeable feature from a residential point of view 
is the prevalent dust storms. On almost any day in summer, columns of dust, 
having a diameter between the limits of one and fifty feet, and an altitude 
of several hundred feet, can be seen traversing the country at a rapid rate, 
while at the same time they rotate rapidly round their own axes. These 
whirlwinds sometimes strike a building with sufficient force to effect a con- 
siderable amount of damage. At not infrequent intervals — more particularly 
when the wind suddenly changes its direction from north to south — a general 
rising of dust will take place, and the air will be darkened equally as much 
as if a dense fog hung over the country. The closing of doors, windows, and 
other apertures of a house will not prevent the ingress of the impalpably fine 
dust ; it follows the currents of air everywhere, and is finally deposited as a 
thin layer over everything. 



36 



CIIAPTEll III. 

Brief Account of tue Geology of the Distkict around the 

Barrier Kanges. 

Sedimentary rocks : — Palceozoic — Siluria7i f ; Devmiian. Mesozow — Creta- 
ceousy Lower ; Cretaceous^ Upper. Cahiozola — Fost-Tertiary and Recent. 
Intrusive and Volcanic 7*ocks : — Acid — Granite ; Quartz felsite ; Pitch- 
stone. Intermediate — Diorite.* Basic — Basalt. Bconomic Mineral 
deposits : — Gold^ silver and lead^ copper ^ tin^ precious opals. 

My information of the geology of that portion of New South Wales 
which is situated immediately aroimd the Barrier llanges, and which is 
included in the small subsidiary map presented with the Geological Sketch 
Map of the Barrier llanges, has been derived in part from my own obser- 
vations, but chiefly from the writings of other geologists who had previously 
examined the country, t J § My own observations were made during three 
visits of short duration to various mineral fields. On one occasion I pro- 
ceeded to Wilcannia and the Cawker's Well Gold-field ; on another occasion 
to Nuntherungie Silver-field ; and on another occasion to White Cliffs Opal- 
field. 

Sedimentary Rocks. 

FalaBOZOic. — These rocks form two elevated areas wliich run approxi- 
mately north and south, and are separated from one another by plains 
composed of Cretaceous and Post-Tertiary sediments. 

The western ridge commences at the Southern Ocean and passes through 
South Australia into New South Wales ; continuing its course through this 
latter Colony it enters Queensland and forms the Grey Range. In the 
northern portion of New South Wales two short breaks occur, and Cretaceous 
strata intervene. It is on the western ridge that Broken Hill and the 
Barrier Ranges Silver-field is situated. 



* In (glassing tlicRC rocks under the abore lieading on account of the mineralogieal composition of those 
specimens which have been submitted to a detailed examination, I haro not lost sight of the fact that tlieir analysis 
shows them to hayc a basic composition. — J.B.J. 

t Report upon the Albert Gold-field, &c., by H. Y. L. Brown. N. S, Wales Pari. Papers, 427— A, 1881. 
(Folio. Sydney, 1881. By Authority.) 

X Notes on the Geology of the Barrier Ranges District and the Mount Browne and Moimt Poole Gt>ld-field8. 
Records Geol Survey N. S. Wales, 1889, i., Pt. 1, pp. 1-9. 

§ Report on Water Supply for Broken Hill. Ann. Rept, Dept, Mines and Agrie, N, 8, Wales for 1891, 
[1892], pp. 254--259, with map. 



37 

The eastern ridge is only about one hundred miles long, and, unlike 
the western ridge, it is surrounded on all sides by Cretaceous and Post-Tertiary 
plains. 

In the northern portion of the plain which runs between the two 
ridges outcrops of Palaeozoic rocks are of not infrequent occurrence ; but, 
inasmuch as I have no information as to the exact location of these outcrops, 
I have not been able to plot them upon the map. 

Silurian, — The rocks consist of indurated and much cleaved slates, 
conglomerates, limestones, sandstones, and micaceous schists. They have an 
approximately meridional strike, and for the most part dip at a high angle. 
No fossils have ever been found in them, and all that is definitely known as 
to their age is that they are older than Devonian. I did not find any large 
body of crystalline schists outside the limits of the Barrier Ranges, yet the 
oldest rocks show evidence of being regionally metamorphosed in many 
places, for bands of micaceous slate or perfectly crystalline schist are not 
infrequently met with intefbedded with the slates. 

Devonian. — These rocks have a thickness of from 30 to 200 feet, and 
consist of sandstones and conglomerates. They occur as outliers, resting 
directly upon the upturned edges of the Silurian (?) slates, &c. They possess 
either an eastern or western dip which is never greater than 30°. The sand- 
stones are invariably close-grained and compact; while the conglomates 
consist of roimded white quartz pebbles in a matrix of sandstone. 

The only Palaeozoic fossils which, so far as I am aware, are known to 
occur in the north-western district of the Colony were found at White Cliffy.* 
There the writer, in conjunction with Mr. C. CuUen, Fossil Collector, 
found Devonian fossils imbedded in sandstone boulders. The lithological 
character of the boulders enabled them to be identified with the sandstones 
which I have described as Devonian, and further explorations will probably 
result in these fossils being discovered in situ. 

Mesozoic. — Cretaceous. — Extensive plains, consisting of Cretaceous 
rocks for the most part hidden by a thin Post-Tertiary deposit, are found 
around the elevated areas of Palaeozoic rocks. As to whether the greater 
portion of these rocks belong to the upper or lower series very little informa- 

• Report on the White Cliffis Opal-field, by J. B. Jaquet. Ann, Rept, Dept, Mines and Agric, N, S, Walts 
for 1892 [1893], pp. 140-142. 



38 

tion has at present been obtained. I have previously stated* that fossilif erous 
rocks of Upper Cretaceous (Desert Sandstone) age occur at White Cliffs, and 
appear to rest on Silurian (?) slates. 

The Lower Cretaceous rocks consist chiefly of marly clays, and the 
Upper Cretaceous, which rest unconformably upon the lower series, consist of 
beds of clay conglomerate and sandstone. There is a slight difference in the 
facies of the fossils characterising the two beds. 

It will be noticed that a distinction is drawn on the map between the 
Cretaceous and Post-Tertiary formations, and yet I have stated that the 
Cretaceous rocks are for the most part covered by a Post-Tertiary deposit. 
Wherever the Cretaceous rocks have been proved to exist — they may either 
have been seen cropping at the surface, or they may have been found 
below in a well or bore — the map is coloured green, but where only Post- 
Tertiary deposits are seen a brown colour is used. It has been pointed 
out by other observers, and my investigations have made me of the same 
opinion, that Cretaceous formations may occur in many places underneath 
the thick Post-Tertiary deposits a considerable distance south of the boun- 
dary at present determined. 

Cainozoic. — Post-Tertiary — ^These deposits consist of gravels and 
clays. They form large plains, which lay between and on either side of the 
Pala30zoic rocks. 

Intrusive and Volcanic Rocks. 
Acid. — Granite. — Mr. H. Y. L. Brown, F.G.S., formerly Geological 
Surveyor on the staff of the Geological Survey of New South Wales and now 
Government Geologist of South Australia, states! that " granite of the ordinary 
kind forms the centre of the Whittabrenah Hange at the place known 
as' the Granite Diggings, where it occupies an area of 10 or 12 square miles. 
There are two small outlying patches in the neighbourhood — one a short 
distance east, and the other about 3 miles west of the main mass." 

QuartZ'felsite. — The same observer states "that eurite dykes occur 
near the copper-mine at Wertago." The dykes referred to are situated in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the Nuntherungie Silver-field, and I had an 

• Report on the White Chffs Opal-field. Ann, Sept. Dept Mines and Asnc, N, S. Wales for 1892 [1898], 
pp. 140-142. 

t Beport upon the Albert Oold-fleld, &c., N. 8, Wales Pari Papers, 427— A, 1881. (Folio. Sydney, 1 
By Authority.) 881. 



39 

opportunity when inspecting this field of examining them. They are com- 
posed of a flesh-coloured quartz-felsite. When viewed in thin sections 
under the microscope the rock is seen to consist of a granular quartzo- 
felspathic ground mass in which are embedded idiomorphic crystals of quartz 
and plagioclase felspar. The quartz crystals are frequently intruded by 
processes from the ground mass and sometimes completely enclose portions of 
it. The plagioclase crystals would appear to have been developed at the 
expense of the ground mass at two distinct periods, for the smaller crystals 
are frequently enclosed in the larger ones (Plate vii., Fig. 5). No trace of 
fluidal structure is apparent. 



An analysis of the rock has been made by Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, 
P.C.S., Analyst and Assayer to the Mines Department, and the result was as 
follows : — 



Moisture and combined water 

Silica (Si O2) 

Alumina (Al, O3) 

Perrons oxide (Fe O) 
Manganous oxide (Mn O) .. 

Lime (Ca O) 

Magnesia (Mg O) ... 

Potash (K2 O) 

Soda (Na, O) 

Sulphuric anhydride (S Oj) 
Phosphoric „ (P2 O5) 
Carbonic „ (C O') 



•41 

78-C4i 

12-79 

114 

trace. 



»» 



»» 



Spec, gravity 



•80 

610 

22 

•14 

trace. 

100-24 
2-51 



Pifchstone. — Near the quartz felsite dykes, and apparently intruding 
the same rocks, dykes of a compact chocolate-brown rock occur. It breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture, and on the fractured surface minute white 
idiomorphic felspars can be seen, together with even smaller glistening quartz 
crystals. A microscopic examination (Plate vii., Figs. 2, 3, 4) shows the 
rock to possess a crypto-crystalline ground mass stained with ferruginous 
alteration products, in which are embedded felspar (sanidine ?) and quartz 
idiomorphs. The ground mass also abounds in skeleton cryistals and 
imperfectly formed spherulites . 



40 



An analysis of this rock has been made by Mr. H. P*. White, F.C.S., 
Assistant Analyst to the Mines Department, with the following result : — 



Moisture and combined water 

Silica (Si Oj) 

Alumina (Al, O3) 

Perrous oxide (Fe O) 
Ferric oxide (Peg Os) 
Manganous oxide (Mn O)... 

Lime (Ca O) 

Magnesia (Mg O) 

Potash (K2O) 

Soda (Na, O) 

Sulphuric anhydride (S O3) 
Phosphoric „ (P2 O5) 

Spec, gravity 



1-60 

76-57 

10-57 

•96 

3-30 

•23 

•67 

•27 

675 

trace. 

nil. 

trace. 

99-92 
2-62 



An examination of the pitchstone may suggest the question : " Has 
it resulted from the same period of volcanic activity which produced the 
quartz-felsite ?" If such were the case one would expect the result of the 
analyses of the two rocks to closely agree. It will be noticed, however, that 
whereas both of them contain approximately the same quantity of alkali it 
is present in the one as soda and in the other as potash. 

Intermediate. — Diorite. — Mr. H. Y. L. Brown states* that " diorite 
dykes are common in the extension northward of the Mount Brown Range, 
traversing the slate for long distances. They strike generally north 25*^ west, 
though sometimes north-west, and vary in thickness up to 120 feet. About 
Wonominta they occur in Silurian slates and southwards as far as Gnalta." 

I observed these dioritic dykes and masses in the neighbourhood of 
Wonominta and Nuntherungie. In places they seemed to simulate closely 
the homblendic rocks found in the Barrier Ranges and described in another 
portion of this Memoir. 

Epidiorite. — A little north of the township of Nuntherungie I found 
a mass of rocks which might be described under this name. It is probably 
one of the normal diorites or rocks rich in hornblende which has been some- 
what altered. The rock has a finely crystalline structure and a greyish-green 
colour. It is very compact, and one experiences considerable difficulty in 
breaking it with a hammer. 

• Loc. cU.f p. 2. 



39 

opportunity when inspecting this field of examining them. They are com- 
posed of a flesh-coloured quartz-felsite. When viewed in thin sections 
under the microscope the rock is seen to consist of a granular quartzo- 
felspathic ground mass in which are embedded idiomorphic crystals of quartz 
and plagioclase felspar. The quartz crystals are frequently intruded by 
processes from the ground mass and sometimes completely enclose portions of 
it. The plagioclase crystals would appear to have been developed at the 
expense of the ground mass at two distinct periods, for the smaller crystals 
are frequently enclosed in the larger ones (Plate vii., Fig. 5). No trace of 
fluidal structure is apparent. 

An analysis of the rock has been made by Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, 
P.C.S., Analyst and Assayer to the Mines Department, and the result was as 
follows : — 



Moiature and combined water 








• • • 


• • 


•41 


Silica (Si O2) 








« • • 




. 78-C4i 


Alumina (Al, O3) 








• • • 




. 12-79 


Perrons oxide (Fe 0) 








• • • 




. 114 


Manganous oxide (Mn 0) ... 








« • • 




trace. 


Lime (Ca 0) 






•• • • 


• • • 




• »» 


Magnesia (Mg 0) 








• • • 




• »» 


Potash (K2 0) 








• • • 




•80 


Soda(Na,0) 








• • • 




610 


Sulphuric anhydride (S O3) 








• • • 




22 


Phosphoric „ (P2 O5) 


• • • • • « 






• • • 




•14 


Carbonic „ (C 0^ 








• • • 




, trace. 




100-24 


Spec, gravity 


• • • • • ■ 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • « 


2-51 



Pitchatone. — Near the quartz felsite dykes, and apparently intruding 
the same rocks, dykes of a compact chocolate-brown rock occur. It breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture, and on the fractured surface minute white 
idiomorphic felspars can be seen, together with even smaller glistening quartz 
crystals. A microscopic examination (Plate vii., Figs. 2, 3, 4) shows the 
rock to possess a crypto-crystalline ground mass stained with ferruginous 
alteration products, in which are embedded felspar (sanidine ?) and quartz 
idiomorphs. The ground mass also abounds in skeleton crystals and 
imperfectly formed spherulites . 



42 

Economic Mineral Deposits. 
Gold. — In the neiglibourhood of Mount Brown and Mount Poole a 
considerable amount of alluvial gold has been won, and several reefs have 
been discovered. Gold reefs also occur, and have been prospected with some 
success at Cawker's Well, Kandie, and Kooningberry. 

Silver and Lead, — Silver lodes and silver-lead lodes occur at Nun- 
therungie, and some very rich silver ore has been sent away from this field.* 

Copper. — Copper lodes have been exploited on the Nuntherungie 
silver-field. Twenty years ago, several tons of ore were mined and sent away 
from the Wertago Copper-mine, which is situated in the neighbourhood of 
this field.* 

Tin. — A small quantity of alluvial tin has been obtained in the 
vicinity of Mount Brown. 

Precious Opals. — ^The Upper Cretaceous beds at White Cliffs have 
yielded and are yielding large supplies of this gem.t 

* [Report on the NuDthorungie Silver-tield.] By J. B. Jaquet. Ann. Repi, Dept, Mines and Agrk. 
N. S. Wales for 1892 [1893], pp. 138-139. 

+ Report on the White Clifis 0pal-field--/6W, p. 140. 



41 

Under the microscope (Plate VI, Fig. 1) it is seen to be made up of 
hornblende, felspar, ilmenite, epidote, and a little calcite. The hornblende is 
frequently fibrous and appears in places to be passing into epidote. The 
felspar is much altered. The ilmenite is largely altered into leucoxen. 

An analysis of this rock was made by Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, with 
the following result : — 

Moisture and combined water ... ... ... ... 1*13 

Silica (Si OO 50-85 

Alumina (Al, O3) ... 



Ferrous oxide (Pe O) 
Manganous oxide (Mn O) 
Lime (Ca O) 
Magnesia (Mg 0) ... 
Potash (K, 0) 
Soda(Ma^O) 
Sulphuric anhydride (S O3) 
Phosphoric anhydride (Pj Oj) 



Spec, gravity ... 



14-80 

11-12 

trace. 

10-91 

6-23 

1-05 

2-69 

trace. 

1-04 

99-82 

2-90 



Basic. — Basalt. — ^The centre of the volcanic activity which called 
this rock into existence would appear to have been at Mount Arrowsmith . 
Mr. H. Y. L. Brown states that* " trap rock forms a portion of the Mount 
Arrowsmith Range, including the mount itseK, and is also found to the south- 
ward and at Wertage in dykes both massive and as amygdaloid and porphyry." 

I observed dykes of basalt intruding the slates near Mount Wright 
and on the Nuntherungie Silver-field. A specimen which I obtained from the 
latter locality is of a deep purple colour, and includes numerous amygdaloid s 
of calcite and a stony material. When viewed in thin sections under the 
microscope (Plate VII, Fig. 1) it is seen to possess a pilotaxitic structure and 
to consist of plagioclase, augite, and olivine. The latter mineral is present in 
considerable quantity both as idiomorphic crystals of various sizes and 
irregular grains. It possesses a yellowish green colour, but serpentinisation on 
the whole does not appear to have proceeded very far. The whole rock is 
much stained with ferruginous alteration products. It has a specific gravity 
of 2-80. 



• Loo, eit.j p. 2. 



44 

Tie paissa^e from the eomjjanitjreJT unaltered skiet^ te., tc- tbt 
completely crystalline BcListb ib in bome cutiefej a?^ at Eurioviej a sudden odxl 
l)ut mon^ oft^m the one j^asbefc. by iubt-nKibie irradations into tbe other. 

& lutes. — -111 the blates are- indurated and much cleared ; thfr sre 
generally of a dark blue colour. 



Sla/e CongUj/iiei'ote^. — Tliese consibl o: ^lnv^^ TrhicL hure 
fragmeutb of blate and bclii^^t- and vat-erw urn jieLbl»:r< and boulders of quam 
and granite bcattered throuirL them. Inc]u^i^ion!^, viih one exoeptioiL "priici 
I bliall refer to elbewhert,* ai't not found in the crrstalline rods; prohalilT 
the great alteration which hab taken place in these rocks has caused any 
inclusions to lose their identity. 

CryUallme Lnni^^toti^s. — Bed's of thebe are of somewhat frequent 
occurrence in the blates and conglomerateb, and are more rardy mart vith 
in the crystalline schist*. The limestone* which occur in the slates hare a 
fine crystalline structun,% and tho.se in the schists are more ooarselT 
crystalline. 

In order to obtain a suitable flux for use in the smelting works an 
active search for beds of limestone lias K^^n made. A large quantity of the 
limestone is too dolomitic to permit of its being used as a flux ; again, other 
beds of limestone contain a considerable quantity of argilhiceous material, 
and might be more correctly described as calcareous slates. 

At Tarrawingee a magnificent bed of limestone occurs, which is about 
50 feet wide, dips east 50°, and can be traced for a distance of one and 
a half mile. The limestone yielded by this bed has a dark blue colour, and 
a considerable proportion of it contains only 6 per cent, of silica, and has 
48*6 per cent, of lime available for combination wdth the silica contained iij 
the ores it is used to flux. During last year, and while the mines were in 
full work, the Tarrawingee Company were sending into Broken Hill by 
means of their railway over 200 tons of flux daily. In some places, notably 
along the outcrop of the l)ed, included fragments of slate occur in great 
profusion and alter its general composition. Numerous beds of limestone 
occur parallel to the one which is now being quarried, but in most cases the 
stone they yield contains a much higher percentage of impurities. 

♦ Pago 47. 



43 



CHAPTER IV. 

Sedimentary and Altered Sedimentary Rocks of the Barrier 

Ranges. 

JPalcBOZoic : — Silurian ? — Slates; Slate conglomerates; Crystalline limestones; 
Crystalline schists ; Gneisses ; Micaceotis schists and banded quartzites ; 
Gamet-qtmrtz rock ("Garnet SandstofieJ . Cainozoic — Fosi- Tertiary and 
Recent gravels^ claySy Sfc. ; Nodular limestone. 

PalaBOZOlc. — Silurian ? — I have already stated elsewhere that owing 
to the absence of Palaeontological evidence, the precise age of these rocks 
cannot be determined. We can only say that they are pre-Devonian. They 
may be of Upper or Lower Silurian ^ge, or still older. 

The beds have been thrown into numerous flexures. Their strike varies 
between north-east and north-west, while they have a dip which for the most 
part varies between 50° and 80°. Mr. C. W. Marsh has pointed out that 
between Silverton and Broken Hill, the formations have been thrown into a 
wide syncline; at the same time he states* that many subsidiary flexures occur. 
Throughout the eastern portion of the Barrier Ranges, between Thackaringa 
on the south, and Cartwright's Creek on the north, the schists dip south-east 
between 60° and 70°. In the immediate neighbourhood of Broken Hill the 
formation dips north-west about 60°, but elsewhere along the eastern boundary 
of the ranges, the dip frequently varies, and in many places, owing to the 
irregular foliation of the rocks, cannot be determined at all. In the central 
portion of the ranges the older rocks are, to a large extent, masked by wide 
flats ; and, moreover, I was unable in most instances to detect any regular 
bedding at those places where, the recent deposits being absent, these rocks 
outcropped. Owing to the numerous flexures into which the rocks have 
been thrown, and the great alteration which has taken place in those rocks 
now represented by crystalline schists, any attempt to correlate the various 
beds would, I think, be abortive. 

• ecological Notes on the Barrier Ranges Silver Field. Joum, S, 8oc, N. 8, Wales for 1890, ixiy., pt. 2, 
pp. 177-196. 



46 

gradations into the other. A granitoid gneiss may be seen gradually losing 
its felspar and quartz, and increasing its mica until it passes into a micaceous 
or sericitic schist with a fine lamination and a delicate silky lustre. 

Garnet- Quartz Bock fGarnet Sandstone). — Beds of this rock, with 
ill-defined boundaries, occur in the neighbourhood of Broken Hill, interbedded 
with the other schists. Small patches are not infrequently met with, both in 
the kaolin ore bodies and the country rock, during the exploitation of the 
Broken Hill mines. 

The most important representative of this formation runs through the 
Junction, Junction North, and New North Silver-mines. It varies in width 
from 30 to 100 feet, and is remarkable, inasmuch as it yields on assay from 
5 oz. to 60 oz. of silver per ton, and a little lead. 

The rock consists essentially of an aggregation of quartz grains and 
garnets (Plate 1, Figs. 1 and 2.) The latter mineral may be present either 
as irregular shaped grains or idiomorphic crystals. Small prisms of apatite 
are of frequent occurrence. Sometimes lines of dark mica plates traverse 
the rock and give it macroscopically a banded appearance. 

The garnet- quartz rocks are, without doubt, altered sedimentary rocks. 
They may be represented, perhaps, as schists, in which there has been an 
excessive development of garnets and quartz. Unlike those found in the 
normal schists the garnets are, excepting the minute forms included in the 
quartz, of approximately uniform size. The silver ore, when present, has 
probably been segregated from the surrounding rocks, and has been deposited 
after the garnets and quartz. 

The Crystalline Schists represent altered Sedimentary rocks. — The 
slates in many places pass by insensible gradations into the perfectly crystal- 
line schists, and where this is the case, it generally happens that no exact line 
of demarcation between the two varieties of rock can be observed. A good 
example of the gradual passage of the one class of rock into the other can 
be observed in the neighbourhood of the Waukeroo Tin-field. Immediately 
east of the large mass of coarsely crystalline granite occurring near the 
township of Albion, the observer will find gneisses and schists, and if he travels 
eastward he wiU find that the crystalline character of the rocks will be 
lost, pseudo- schistose conglomerates will make their appearance, and after a 
distance of about nine miles has been traversed, the country will be found to 



47 

consist of dark blue indurated slates. In some places the passage from the 
schists to the slates is a sudden one, and the one rock is found to be con- 
formable with the other. This sudden change in the formations can be 
observed at Euriowie. 

In the neighbourhood of Cartwright's Creek, and not far removed 
from the boundary of the crystalline rocks in this direction, large waterwom 
boulders of granite and fragments of a micaceous slate occur in a perfectly 
schistose matrix, and the rock containing these inclusions is interbedded 
with true gneisses and schists. 

I may here remark incidentally that the conclusion which must be 
arrived at after a determination of these foreign particles is that slates, 
schists, and masses of granite existed before the rocks under consideration 
were laid down; that however old these latter rocks may be, they were 
preceded by still older sedimentary rocks. 

The Foliation Planes of the Crystalline rocks are in a great fiumber 
of instances coincident with the original bedding plaiies. In the western 
portion of the Barrier Ranges the planes of foliation dip south-east between 
60° and 70°. Over a large area and included in these schists is a bed of lime- 
stone (Ettlewood Limestone) . The dip of this limestone bed is identical, both 
as regards direction and angle, with that of the plane of foliation of the rocks 
surrounding it. In other places, where schistose rocks prevail, and where a 
boundary between the two descriptions of rock — say, for instance, between a 
micaceous schist and quartzite — can be observed, it will often be found that 
the strike and dip of the boundary is conformable with that of the foliation 
planes. It must be pointed out, however, that there appear to be many 
exceptions to this rule. In some places the various minerals may have 
been secreted along cleavage or joint planes, or along planes which were 
independent of any previously existing in the sedimentary parent rock. 
Over considerable areas there frequently appears to be no regularity in the 
foliation; it is this circumstance which makes the relation which various 
rocks bear to one another often so diflficult to determine. 

Calnozoic. — Post- Tertiary and Recent Deposits. — These consist of 
beds of limestone, gravel, sand, and clays. 



48 

The limestone deposits consist of nodules of an amorphous limestone, for 
the most part earthy and dolomitic. It is locally known hy the name of 
" ruhble limestone," and was lai'gely quarried previous to the discovery of beds 
of crystalline limestone at Tarrawingee for use as a flux. The limestone occurs 
in small quantities, associated with other recent deposits, in many places above 
the crystalline schists, and would appear on the whole to have had a more 
recent origin than the greater bulk of the gravels, clays, &c. In some 
places, notably in the neighbourhood of Acacia and Silverton, the deposits 
attain a thickness of from six to twenty feet. The rock at the two places men- 
tioned is less earthy and dolomitic in its upper portions than is the case else- 
where, but it often passes by insensible gradations into calcareous clays below. 



A sample which I obtained from the 
being analysed by Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, F.C 

Moisture at 100° C 

Combined water 

Carbonate of lime (Ca CO3) ... 

„ magnesia (Mg CO3) 

Magnesia (Mg O) 
SiHca (Si O2) ... 
Alumina (AI2 O3) 
Ferric oxide (Fei 0,) 
Ferrous oxide (Fe O) 
Manganese oxide (Mn O) 
Phosphoric anhydride (P^ Os) 
Sulphuric anhydride (SO,) .. 



Pinnacles '. 


District yielded on 


S., as follows : 






•51 






•77 






6774 






24-91 






•24 






3-47 






•99 






•97 






nil. 






trace. 






•26 


jt 9 ^ • • 




trace. 



99-86 



• This sample consists essentially of a mixture of calcium and mag- 
nesium carbonates ; but the bulk of the limestone raised as flux at Acacia 
and Silverton only contains a small quantity of the latter compound. 



The limestone beds possess a great power of absorbing water, which 
will slowly percolate out into wells' sunk through them. The advantages 
which these deposits, as reservoirs of water, have conferred on the Broken 
Hill Mines in the past are very great. Had it not been for the large supplies 
of water pumped into Broken Hill daily from Acacia during the great 
drought of last year (1892) many of the blast furnaces would have had to 
shut down for several months. 



49 

Origin of Limestone.-^— The hornblende rocks are frequently 
observed when weathering to secrete considerable quantities of calcite, 
while the weathered surfaces are often covered with a thin coating 
of amorphous carbonate of lime — in fact with a coating of a limestone 
identical with that forming the deposits under consideration. The larger 
beds of limestone occur in those districts in which there is the greatest 
abundance of hornblende rocks, and where the peculiarity of weathering 
mentioned above is most pronounced. Prom the Tinnacles deposits I 
obtained nodules of limestone which enclosed kernels of altered hornblende 
rock. A consideration of these facts has made me of opinion that these 
limestones have been derived during the process of weathering from the 
amphibolites, &c., associated with the schists. 

The occurrence of such thick deposits of washes, &c., of Post-Tertiary 
age, more particularly on the vast plains on either side of the Barrier Ranges, 
but also on the flats which intervene between the various ridges and hills, 
would seem to indicate that during their deposition the district must have 
possessed a great rainfall. The late Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, P.G.S., Geological 
Surveyor-in-Charge, on the occasion of his first visit to the Barrier Ranges, 
pointed out the likelihood of such being the case.* It is interesting to contrast 
the condition of the climate under such circumstances with that which exists 
at the present day. 

The increase in the " recent" deposits, which is being effected at the 
present time, at the expense of the older rocks, chiefly occurs through the 
agency of the wind, assisted by the rapid variations in temperature which 
obtain on the exposed rock surfaces. In the day, during the summer months, 
the temperature in the sun is frequently as high as 170° P., or 180° P. The effect 
of this extreme heat, followed by the comparative cold of the night time, is 
to cause the exposed surfaces of the rocks to alternately expand and contract, 
and finally scales of rock become detached from the main mass. These scales 
are in like manner split up into smaller ones, and thus large masses, of rock 
are crumbled away. The dust so produced is caught up by the wind and 
finally deposited on the country around. 

■ ■ ■ , _ _ _ - ' 

* Report on the Silver-bearing Lodes of the Barrier Ranges in the Albert District, New South Wales. 
-V: 8. Wales Leg, Ass. Paper, 1076—^, 1883-84. (Folio. Sydney, 1884. By Authority.) 



50 



CHAPTER V. 

Intrusive? Rocks. 

Acid. — Granite ayid Granitite. Basic. — AmphiboUtei Diorite ?, Sfc. ; 

Serpentine (altered AynphiboliteJ . 

Acid. — Granite. — The area over which granite in the form of dykes 
and bosses is found corresponds exactly with that occupied by crystalline 
schists ; it never occurs in the slates. From incidental remarks in the late 
Mr. C. S. Wilkinson's Report,* he would appear to have noticed tliis circum- 
stance, but he docs not call particular attention to it. Some of the bosses 
are of very large extent ; thus between Purnamoota and Waukcroo you have 
granite hills occupying a belt of country nine miles long by three miles broad. 

The constituent minerals are quartz, which may be massive or in the 
form of grains ; felspar, consisting of orthoclase and plagioclase ; and light 
mica. In the neighbourhood of Waukcroo and Euriowie, in addition to the 
primary minerals, - tourmaline, cassiterite, and fluorspar occur. The crystals 
of orthoclase frequently have assumed enormous dimensions; and such 
crystals are occasionally associated with plates of mica, which may be of 
sufficient size to be of value in commerce. 

In every case the granite is very coarsely crystalline. If the outcrop 
of a dyke be followed along it will be found to consist in one place solely of 
felspar, in another of massive quartz, and in another of mica, while in places 
you may get rocks representing every possible mixture of these three minerals. 
A very large number of so-called quartz reefs are but portions of these dykes, 
and if the end of the reef be examined it will be found passing into a felspar 
rock or granite. It is owing to greater power of resisting denudation possessed 
by the quartz that those portions of the dykes composed of this mineral stand 
out abdve the neighbouring portions. The large masses of quartz have a milk- 
white colour, and resemble reef quartz. 

The quartz and felspar are much intergrown with one another in places, 
and the rock in consequence may be described as a graphic granite. This 
graphic granite is found both in the form of masses and dykes. 

* Loc. cit. 



61 

Within the area covered by the Geological Map of Broken Hill a vein 
of granite occurs which is somewhat remarkable in that it follows for nearly a 
mile the same course as a dyke or bed of amphibolite. The vein referred to 
runs through M.L. Portions 85, 86, 87, and 88. It has a width of from two to 
three feet, and closely resembles other dykes occurring in the district, inasmuch 
as its constituent minerals are often separately segregated. The felspar which 
it contains is for the most part of the triclinic variety, probably oligoclase. 
On M.L. Portion 87 some prospectors have cut a costeaning trench across the 
dykes, and in this trench it is seen that instead of one dyke of amphibolite 
you have several running parallel to one another, and separated by bands of 
schist ; and that the granite lies on the footwall of one of the amphibolite 
dykes. It would appear, therefore, that whereas in some places the granite 
lies altogether in the amphibolite, in others, where this latter rock is split up 
by intervening bands of schist, it is situated between amphibolite and schist. 
Owing to the accumulation of debris and the occurrence in places of a recent 
deposit, it is not possible to trace the several bands of amphibolite and 
schist on the surface, however in some places the granite has amphibolite 
on either side of it. 

An analysis of a sample of the granite taken from a spot where it was 
typical of those coarsely crystalline granites occurring all over the field in 
which triclinic felspars predominate, was made by Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, 
P.C.S., Analyst and Assayer to the Mines Department. The result of this 
analysis was as follows : — 



Moisture and combined water 


-26 


Silica (SiO,) 


71-56 


Alumina (AI2O3) 


17-27 


Ferrous oxide (PeO) 


78 


Manganous oxide (MnO) 


... trace. 


Lime (CaO) 


106 


Magnesia (MgO) 


trace. 


Potash (KjO) 


213 


Soda(Na20) ... 


6-82 


Sulphuric anhydride (SO3) .., 


-35 


Phosphoric anhydride (P2O5) 


-22 



100-45 



Grcmitite. — ^About two miles east of Silverton and elsewhere in the 
western portion of the Barrier Ranges bosses of granite or granitite occur 
which are more finely crystalline than those occurring elsewhere within the 



62 

area geologically examined. This rock consists of triclinic felspar, quartz, 
and both light and dark mica. When examined in thin sections under the 
microscope the felspars are seen to be very perfectly twinned sometimes upon 
the albite and sometimes both upon the albite and pericline system ; they are 
also much schillerized (Plate II, Fig. 2) . Both the quartz and mica appear to 
have had a secondary origin, and to have been developed at the expense of 
the felspar. These masses of granitite may have had a different origin from 
the coarsely crystalline granites, greisens, &c. ; but the facts which I obtained 
in reference to them are not sufficient to warrant me in stating positively that 
such is the case. 

Origin of Granite. — The dykes and masses of granite may have 
originated in four ways : firstly, they may have been intruded before regional 
metamorphism of the slates over a wide area took place ; secondly, the 
regional metamorphism may have resulted from their intrusion ; thirdly, they 
may have been intruded after the production of the schists ; and lastly, they 
may have been secreted from the schists. 

The general character of the rock is against the first hypothesis. 
In other parts of Australia, and elsewhere in the world, where masses of 
granite have been included in areas which have been subjected to regional 
metamorphism they are found to have become either rudely or perfectly 
foliated, and to show evidence of being crushed; but this is not the case with 
the rocks under consideration. Again, why should we find granite on the 
edges of the schists but never in the slates ? Why should the intrusive be 
found only in those portions of the sedimentary rocks which were afterwards 
changed into schists ? 

Against the second supposition is the fact that no difference can be 
detected in the crystalline form of the apophyses of the larger masses of 
granite — supposing the dykes and smaller masses around them may be 
considered as such — there is no occurrence of crypto-crystalline eruptives ; on 
the contrary the crystals of felspar, &c., in the dykes are for the most part of 
even greater dimensions than those found in the dominating bosses. If one be 
prepared to assume that the rocks forming the whole area now occupied by 
crystalline schists were by reason of the intrusion kept for a long time in a 
semi-plastic state, or in a condition altogether conducive to perfect crystalli- 
sation; in other words, if the same causes which assisted the amorphous 



63 

sedimentary rocks in passing into gneisses and schists, also aided the intrusive 
magma in consolidating as a coarsely crystalline granite, then this* objection 
vanishes. 

If the granite was intruded after the production of the schists, we 
might expect to find some evidence of contact metamorphism, but such has 
not been observed. Perhaps in the case of crystalline schists alteration due 
to contact with a molten mass might not be so apparent as it would be when 
argillaceous rock was the material acted upon ; however, we may be justified 
in assuming that we should find some trace of it, such as the inclusion in the 
granite of partially fused fragments of schist, &c. My previous remarks 
made when discussing the first hypothesis in reference to the granite not 
being found outside the crystalline schists will apply again here. 

In some places the crystalline rocks have ramifying through them in 
great profusion thin veins of pegmatite, which are analogous in all respects 
to those segregation veins that are so often found accompanying crystal- 
line schists, and the contents of these veins cannot be distinguished from 
some of the larger masses of granite. In the mine workings patches of 
a coarsely crystalline felspar rock sometimes occur, which, being entirely 
surrounded by schists, could only have originated by segregation. 

Ultra Basic. — AmphiboUte^ ^c. — ^These rocks occur indykes (?), which 
appear, in nearly all instances, to be conformably bedded with the schists and in 
large masses. A few of the isolated hills in the Barrier Ranges are altogether 
composed of them ; a typical instance of such a hill being Mount Eurodo, or 
the Black Mountain, situated between Silverton and Thackaringa. The 
districts in which they are found in greatest abundance are identical with 
those in which the silver-lead deposits occur ; and this has caused it to be 
suggested that those masses of basic rock have in some manner or other 
fertilized the schistose rocks with silver and lead. 

I did not observe any hornblendic rocks, or in fact any intrusive or 
volcanic rocks whatsoever in the sediments immediately outside the area 
metamorphosed. At Nuntherungie, Kooningberry, Wonominta and else- 
where, however, the Silurian (?) slates are intruded by dykes of hornblende 
and dioritic rocks, which are analogous in many respects to the Broken Hill 
amphibolites, &c. It may be interesting to compare the analysis of an 
epidiorite given on page 41 from the former mentioned localities with those 
of the rocks in course of description. 



54 

A good idea of the mode of occurrence of the rocks will be obtained 
if reference be made to the Geological Map of Broken Hill accompanying 
this Memoir; the area mapped is typical of those portions of the schists in 
which the hornblende rocks abound. 

The constituent minerals are hornblende, plagioclase, pyroxene, 
apatite, magnetite, garnet, quartz and occasionally biotite and pyrrhotine. 
(Plate III. Fig. 1 and 2, Plate IV. Pig. 1 and 2.) 

The hornblende occurs chiefly as small irregular grains and occa- 
sionally as idiomorphic crystals ; in some instances, owing to dynamo-meta- 
morphic changes having taken place, the grains and crystals have been 
completely crushed, and in their place one finds a confused arrangement of 
fibres and fragments of hornblende. This mineral exhibits for the most part 
very rich polarization colours. Where mine workings have penetrated into the 
interior of the larger masses of rock, as has been done at the Australian Broken 
Hill Consols Mine, near Broken HiU, and at the Lady Bevy's Mine, near the 
Pinnacles, large porphyritic crystals of hornblende are frequently seen im- 
bedded in a finely crystalline matrix. I have before me, as I write, a specimen 
from the Lady Bevy's Mine in which a crystal three inches long and one 
inch wide occurs. Hornblende in some places, notably in the neighbourhood 
of Acacia and the Pinnacles, may be seen weathering into chlorite, calcite, 
and occasionally epidote ; large bodies of calcite which have been produced in 
this way are sometimes found included in the rocks now being described. 

The plagioclase occurs as irregular colourless grains which, when 
viewed in thin sections under the microscope, are seen to be remarkably clear 
and free from alteration products. It is important to note that in this respect, 
and in their general character, they simulate closely the felspars in the 
surrounding schists and gneisses. The grains for the most part exhibit a 
perfect system of twin lamination. 

The rhombic pyroxene has been determined by Professor T. W. E. 
David, B.A.,P.G.S., to be bronzite. I have only found it present in the mass 
of rock occurring in the AustmUan Broken Hill Consols Mine. It can only 
be distinguished microscopically, and further investigations may show it to 
be widely distributed among the hornblende rocks. 

Apatite occurs as small prisms, which are found included in the grains 
of hornblende and other minerals. 

Quartz occurs as irregular grains, and would appear in all cases to 
have had a secondary origin. 



65 



Garnets in the form of irregular grains, or idiomorphic crystals, are 
not infrequently present in these rooks, and they would appear to have had a 
later origin than the hornblende, and in most instances have probably been 
developed at the expense of this mineral (Plate IV. Figs. 1 and 2.) I have 
found that in those rocks which possess a granular structure and have not 
been crushed this mineral is generally absent, while it may be present in 
considerable quantities in the foliated and crushed rocks. 

Magnetite in the form of irregular grains occurs all through the rocks. 

Pyrrhotine is present in some of the hornblende rocks occurring in 
* the vicinity of the Pinnacles. 

All the hornblende rocks have a greenish black colour. In one place, 
consisting essentially of allotriomorphic hornblende grains, they may be 
described as amphibolites ; in another, where a considerable quantity of 
plagioclase is present perhaps as basic diorites, and where foliated as horn- 
blende schists. The rocks are more often of the amphibolite type, with a 
granular and finely crystalline structure. Sometimes that portion of a dyke 
immediately adjoining the walls is composed of a normal hornblende schist, 
which passes into a granular hornblende rock in the more centrally situated 
portions. -In many instances it is not possible to locate the boimdary of the 
dyke or mass at the surface, for the hornblende rock appears to pass by 
insensible gradations into the surrounding micaceous schists or gneisses. 

Two analyses of these rocks have been made. One — of a specimen of 
foliated amphibolite (Plate III, Fig. 1), obtained from a depth of 1,450 
feet in the diamond drill bore-hole on M.L. Portion 35, Parish of Picton — ^by 
^Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, gave the following result: — 

Moisture and combined water 

Silica (Si02) 

Alumina (AI2O3) 

Ferric oxide (Fe208) and Ferrous oxide (Fe O) 

Manganous oxide (MnO) 

Lime (CaO) ... 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Potash (KoO) 

Soda (Na^O) 

Copper oxide (CuO) .. . 
Phosphoric anhydride (PjOs) 
Sulphuric „ (SO2) 





1-45 




41-55 




13*41 




24-28 




trace. 




1003 




701 




•98 




71 




trace. 




•28 




•14 


09-84 



Spec, gravity 



307 



56 

The other analysis of a piece of granular plagioclase-bronzite- 
amphibolite (Plate III, Fig. 2), from the Consols Mine, by IVIr. H. P. White, 
F.C.S., Assistant Analyst to the Mines Department, gave the following 
result : — 



Moisture at 100° C ... 
Combined water 
Silica (SiOj) ... 
Ferric oxide (Fe^Oj) ... 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) ... 
Man^^anouH oxide (MnO) 
Alumina (AI2O3) 
Lime (CaO) ... 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Potash (KoO) ... 
Soda (NasO) ... 
Metallic copper (C) . . . 
Sulphur (S) 



I*. 



13 



• • • 


• • • 


Jk«^ 


f •• 


• • • 


41-4(5 


■ • • 


• • • 


3-37 






16-71 






20-36 






8-79 






5-50 






•82 






2-43 






•44 






•13 




100-70 



Spec, gravity 



3-05 



Origin of Amphibolites. — Inasmuch as the rocks under consideration are 
frequently either rudely or perfectly foliated, the period of their intrusion — 
if they be intrusive — must have been anterior to or contemporaneous with the 
general metamorphism of the sedimentary rocks. The general structure of those 
specimens in which foliation is altogether absent (PI. Ill, Fig. 2) might suggest 
that they were intrusive ; but, on the other hand, the fact that the dykes are 
so frequently conformable with the schists is evidence against this hypothesis. 
In a few places the dykes appear to pass across the bedding planes of the 
rocks enclosing them. The bedding planes of the schists, however, cannot 
always be readily determined ; and it not infrequently happens that no exact 
line of demarcation between the two varieties of rock can be found. Hence * 
it would not, perhaps, be wise to place too much reliance on isolated observa- 
tions. In the neighbourhood of Broken Hill, where the numerous mine 
workings along the line o^lode have enabled the strike of the country to be 
laid down in a very accurate manner, they arc found to trend with the strike 
of the country in a very persistent way. I am unable to suggest any mode 
of origin for these rocks, which would seem to entirely coincide with the 
observed facts concerning their distribution, mode of occurrence, and general 
composition. The late Mr. Wilkinson described them as intrusive diorites*, 
and they are so designated upon the geological maps accompanying this 
Memoir. 



* Report on the Silver-hearing Lodes of the Barrier Ranges in the Alhert District, New South Wales. 
N. S. n'ak'M Leg. Ass. Papers, 1076— A, 18S3-84. (Folio. Sydney, 1894. By Authority.) 



57 

Serpentine.* — ^About nine miles east of Broken Hill, in the neighbour- 
hood of Rockwell, a serpentinous rock occurs. Attention was first called to 
it when it had been found to contain veins of asbestos- 

The rock occurs as a large mass, and as dykes or beds conformable 
with the schists. For particulars as to the distribution of this mass and 
dykes I will refer the reader to the Geological Sketch Map of the Barrier 
Ranges accompanying this Memoir. 

The large mass referred to is situated upon M. L. Portions 26, 
54, 69, and 125, Parish of Sebastopol. Hero the superficial layer of the 
rock is stained with ferric oxide, set free during the process of weathering, 
and hence the spot has been called " Red Hill." 

The smaller and apparently bedded masses of rock are perfectly 
schistose, and the greater portion of Red Hill is either rudely or perfectly 
foliated. 

Included in the serpentine arc small veins of asbestos (chrysotile) . 
The fibres contained in these veins may possess a dark green colour, and not 
be easily separated one from another, or they may be white, tough, and 
silky. In fact, there would appear to be every gradation between veins 
containing a regular parallel arrangement of serpentinous fibres, which only 
differ from those forming the bulk of the rock in that they possess this 
arrangement, and the asbestos of commerce. 

A macroscopic examination of the rock shows it to possess a greenish 
grey colour of various shades. It is flecked with small spots consisting of a 
white powdery substance. The numerous grains of partially scrpentinised 
hornblende and a talc-like mineral, which are scattered through the general 
mass, can easily be distinguished by their slightly darker colour and by the 
sheen which they exhibit. When a polished face is examined the distinction 
between these grains and the serpentinous products is accentuated ; for, being 
harder, the former constituent takes a better polish, and its darker colour is 
more apparent. It possesses a very earthy scent. 

The rock would be little sought after for ornamental purposes, for it 
is so soft that it can in some instances be scratched with the nail ; and, 
moreover, its appearance when polished is not particularly pleasing. 

* In describing these rocks under this name the fact that they differ from normal serpentine, more particularly 
in containing a considerable quantity of alumina, has not been lost sight of ; perhaps they might be more correctly 
termed imperfectly scrpentinised amphibolites.— J.B.J. 



58 

When examined in thin sections under the microscope, the rock is seen 
to consist of a colourless isotropic groundmass and bands of vividly polarising 
serpentinous fibres. The "lattice structure/' so characteristic of serpentine 
after hornblende, can be observed in places. In those poriiions which are 
much foliated the bands of fibres frequently run parallel with the plane of 
foliation, while the clear groundmass is present in less quantity than 
elsewhere. Particles of hornblende, generally much altered, were found in 
the sections examined ; sometimes this mineral only appears to be changed in 
so far as it is colourless, while in one case it has retained in part a brown tint. 
Plates of a fibrous talc-like mineral with ragged ends, which are for the most 
part much serpentinised, are of frequent occurrence. Grains of magnetite 
are present in considerable numbers in most of the sections examined. 

The fact that the rock under consideration contains a considerable 
nimiber of altered hornblende grains, which under the microscope can be 
seen passing into serpentinous products, coupled with the circumstance that 
in its mode of occurrence it closely simulates the amphibolites occurring in 
the district, I think is sufficient to warrant the assertion that it has been 
derived from one of these rocks. As to the reason why a few masses of this 
variety of rock in one particular portion of the Barrier Ranges should have 
undergone a serpentinous change while their neighbours remained unaltered, 
I have no explanation to offer. 

An analysis of the rock has been made by Mr. H. P. White. In 
order to assist in a comparison being made between the result of this analysis 
and that of other hornblende rocks occurring in the Barrier B/anges, I have 
placed by its side the two results given upon pages 55 and 56. 











I. 


II. 


III. 


Spec, gravity 


• • • 


• •• 


• •• 


2-90 


3-07 


305 


Moisture at 100°C ... 


... 


• • • 


• « • 


•24 


1-45 


-13 


Combined water 


• • . 


• • • 


• • • 


2-48 


Silica 


... 


• • • 


• • • 


46-20 


41-55 


41-46 


Alumina 


. • . 


• • • 


• • • 


916 


13-41 


20-36 


Ferric oxide ... 


• . . 


• • • 


ft • ft 


1-77 


1 24-28 


C 3-37 
I 16-71 


Ferrous oxide ... 


... 


• • ft 


• • • 


413 


Manganous oxide 


... 


• ■ • 


• • • 


trace. 


trace. 




Lime ... 


• . . 


• • • 


• • • 


713 


1003 


8-79 


Magnesia 


... 


• ■ ■ 


• • ft 


28-67 


7-01 


5-50 


Soda 


... 


• • • 


• ft • 


•40 


•71 


243 


Potash 


... 


• • • 


• ft ft 


nil. 


•98 


•82 


Phosphoric anhydride 


D 


• • • 


• • ft 


trace. 


•28 


•13 


Sulphuric do 




• • • 


• • • 


nil. 


•14 


•56 


Met. Copper ... 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 




trace 


•44 


Sulphur 


• • • 


• ft • 


• • • 









10018 9984 100-70 

I. Serpentine (?) from " Red Hill," near Kockwell. 
II. AmphiboUte, from borehole, near Broken Hill. 
III. Flagioclase-bronzite-amphibolite, from Australian Sroken Hill Consols Mine. 



59 

It will be noticed that the analysis shows the rock to differ from a 
normal serpentine in containing a considerable quantity of alumina and lime, 
and in having, comparatively, a high percentage of silica. I think that the 
lime is probably present in the altering hornblende. The alumina may also 
perhaps be accounted for in a similar manner. 

The serpentine differs as regards its composition from the other two 
rocks chiefly in containing considerably less iron and a proportionately larger 
quantity of magnesia. It also contains more silica and less alumina than the 
former rocks. 

Schillerizatlon. — Abundant illustrations of this phenomenon are to 
be found both in the schistose and other crystalline rocks of the Barrier Ranges. 
When the felspar-quartz rock occurring in the Victoria Cross Mine (Plate II, 
Fig. 1.) is examined in thin sections under the microscope, numerous rod- 
like enclosures definitely arranged along certain planes — Prof. Judd's, 
"planes of chemical weakness"* — are seen. These enclosures, though present 
in the greatest profusion in the felspar, also occur in the quartz ; sometimes 
a particular rod will be found situated partly in tlie one mineral and partly 
in the other. In the quartz they are not often found to have a definite 
orientation ; but instances can be seen, more particularly in the peripheral 
portions of the quartz grains, in which they are arranged in a line with their 
neighbours in the adjoining felspar. 

The general appearance of the rock would seem to suggest that the 
quartz was' of secondary origin, and has in places replaced the felspar. If 
this be the case, the presence of the rods in the quartz may bq accounted 
for ; but, unless we assume that while the felspar, in which they originated, 
was being replaced they were sometimes disturbed, this hypothesis will not 
account for the fact that they so often possess no orientation in the quartz. 

In the altered granititc near Silverton (Plate II, Pig. 2), the felspars 
are much schillerized. The small rod-like inclusions invariably make an angle 
with the twinning planes of the felspars ; while coincident with these planes, 
rows of more or less perfectly developed negative crystals (Plate VIII, Pigs. 
4, 5, 6) sometimes occur. 

• Min. Mag., 1886, vn., p. 81. 



60 



CHAPTER VI. 

Economic Mineral Deposits, Introduction. 

Silver and Silver Lead. — Broken Sill Lodes; Pinnacles Lodes; Thackaringa 
Lodes; Zfmberumherka Lodes; Appolyon Valley and Purnamoota Lodes; 
Rockwell Lodes ; Lodes between Broken Hill and White Lead Tank ; 
Lodes between Broken Hill and Stephens Creek; Maybell Lodes; 
Eaglehawk Lodes ; Silverton Proprietary Lodes ; Aust. B. H. Consols 
Lodes; Tin. — JEuriotoie and Waukeroo Dykes. Copper. — Balaclava. 
Gold. — Yancowinna ; Mtmdi Mundi ; Mulga Springs and Little Bar- 
ling Creek; Purnamoota. Platinum. — Mulga Springs and Little Barling 
Creek. Asbestos. — Rockwell. Phosphates. — Mookaie. Ironstone. — 
Corona^ Sfc. 

It generally happens that neighbouring lodes in the Barrier Ranges 
agree very closely both as regards the mineralogical constitution of their ore 
and the mode of its occurrence. But such is not always the case; thus 
within thirty chains of the great Broken Hill saddle lode occurs the thin 
fissure vein exploited by the Consols Mine, which, in a measure, simulates 
some of the Thackaringa and Apolyon Valley deposits.* 

Broadly speaking, there would appear to be two great mineral belts 
running parallel with the strike of the formations throughout the Barrier 
Ranges, one being situated in the eastern and the other in the western 
watershed. 

The whole of that portion of the Barrier Ranges, however, which is 
composed of crystalline schists is metal bearing ; in fact it would be difficult 
to select any square mile where these rocks are outcropping from which a 
diligent prospector could not obtain stone capable of yielding from a trace up 
to several ounces of silver per ton. In the course of my survey, I examined 
a shaft in the Rockwell District — put down wdth a view of driving out below 
to the junction of the schists and serpentine — ^and at a depth of 60 ft. the 
unaltered gneiss had scattered through it minute patches of galena and 
blende. The occurrence of ore in this manner may perhaps be explained as 

* See also page 124. 



61 

an instance of segregation with replacement ; but a general examination, apart 
from a consideration of the laws governing the distribution of metalliferous 
ores, might have led one to believe that the lead and zinc-bearing minerals 
had had a contemporaneous origin with the other constituents of the gneiss. 
I might cite many other instances of shafts being sunk on the field where no 
surface indications of silver or lead being present in the ground below exist, 
which have encountered more or less irregular masses of ore. So I think we 
are warranted in assuming that small but appreciable quantities of silver 
and lead — independent of that minute quantity of these metals which the 
researches of Sandberger and others would lead us to expect being present in 
intimate association with the various silicates composing the country rock — 
occur, in forms similar to those commonly found in the veins and other ore 
deposits, throughout the altered sedimentary rocks on the field. 



62 



CHAPTER VII. 

The Broken Hill Lodes. 

Broken Mill Lode. — It w a " saddle " Lode. Trend coincides with strike of 
country. Irregular character of lode in places. Walls of lode. 
Movements have probably taken place i7i western wall^ and tnasses of rock 
have become detached from it. Outcrop of Lode — Formation of outcrop. 
JRelation between width of outcrop and its height above cap of saddle. 
Eastrcii Lode, — North-eastern Lode. — Western Lode. — Ore contained in 
lodes is probably the result of lateral secretion. 

It is a " saddle " Lode. — Previous to the production, in April, 1892, 
of the Government Geologist's (Mr.E.P.Pittman,A.R.S.M.) Report*, the great 
Broken Hill ore deposit had been described by other writers as a true fissure 
lode. It will be necessary for the reader — if he has not already done so — ^to 
make himself acquainted with this Report, which wiU be found forming 
Appendix I at the end of this Memoir, as the writer in the following 
pages has assumed tliis to be the case. 

The trend of the Lodes coincides with the strike of the 

Country. — An examination of the three lodes — the Broken Hill, Eastern, 
and North-eastern Lode — will show that they follow the strike of the country 
in a very persistent manner. If the accompanying Geological Map of Broken 
Hill be referred to, it will be seen that the Broken Hill Lode turns southward 
in the vicinity of Knox Shaft, at the same time the country rock alters its 
strike and follows the lodes. Again in the eastern portion of the British 
Mine and in the Junction Mine, the North-eastern Lode makes an abrupt 
bend, this bending being accompanied by a similar alteration in the strike of 
the country. 

In some of the workings in the upper portions of the Broken Hill 
Lode this coincidence is not apparent ; such cases, however, are of purely local 
occurrence, they are only found where there is a local variation in the strike 
of the gneisses, &c. The lode in these places has not altered its course in 
reference to the country rock, but portions of the latter have shifted their 

• [Report on the Broken Hill Lode.] Ann. Repf. Dnpt. Mincx and Aqric. N. S. Wales for 1802 [1803], pp 
108, 109. 



63 

relative positions to the lode. Probably this was brought about by movements 
occurring in the imperfectly supported hanging wall, after the flexuring 
of the gneisses and consequent formation of fissures had taken place. 

The irregular replacement of country rock by ore has also caused the 
lode boundary to pass across the bedding planes in some places ; but in these 
instances the dividing line takes a sinuous course, nor is there often any 
defined wall, owing to the ore passing by insensible gradations into the 
country rock. 

Irregular Character of the Lode in places.— Though, in by far 

the great majority of instances, a cross section of Broken Hill will show the 
main ore deposit to have the normal outlines of a saddle lode, yet this is not 
everywhere the case, for in one place the eastern, and in another the western 
leg of the lode, may be suppressed and various other seeming anomalies are 
met with ; but when the conditions w^hich resulted in the formation of the 
original fissure are considered in detail, I think one would deem it somewhat 
strange were the lode other than irregular in places. The presence of an 
anticline forming the core of the Broken II ill lidge is evidence of the great 
lateral pressure to which the rocks at this locality have at one time been 
subjected ; while the imdulating character of this anticline, and the fact that 
the direction in which it trends varies within certain limits suggest that the 
present conformation of the rocks enclosing the saddle lode is also in part due 
to pressure falling upon them in directions other than lateral. 

• 

If the layers of note paper referred to in the Government Geologist's 
Report be subjected only to lateral pressure then a saddle shaped fissure may 
result ; but if they are at the same time subjected to forces acting in a 
longitudinal, and perhaps other directions, then wiU the regularity of any 
cavity produced be destroyed. Should the lateral pressure be far and away 
greater than that falling on the folia from other directions, then the domin- 
ating shape of the fissure produced will be " a saddle ;" while the variation 
from this shape at any point will depend in part on the magnitude and 
direction of the subsidiary forces bearing upon it, and in part on the power 
which the paper there possesses of resisting deflection or fracture. 

Walls of Lode. — No flucan course can be found along the walls, nor 
are they marked by a succession of slickensides, and generally all evidence of 
either of them having been a plane upon which shearing has taken place is 



t 



*>- 



6J. 

absent. The foot wall above the cap of the saddle is, for the most part, better 
defined than the hanging wall, and consequently it less often happens that 
any difficulty is experienced in following it. In many places where impreg- 
nation or replacement of the country rock by ore has taken place, as I have 
stated previously, no defined wall is present; but an ill-defined boundary 
between the ore and country rock can be observed, and it is convenient for 
the purposes of description to call this boundary the wall. 

Moyements hare probably taken place in the Western wall.— • 

In some places, as in the southern portion of Block 14 Mine, the ore bulges 
out and forms an irregular mass, extending into the western wall across the 
bedding planes of the gneiss. Again in other places bodies of ore either 
wholly or partly detached from the main body and trending with the bedding 
planes of the gneiss are found to the west of the hanging wall ; as an instance 
of one of these bodies of ore I may mention that occurring at the 200-feet 
level of the British Mine, which, while following the strike of the coimtry, 
thins out to the north and enters the main lode on the south. 

If we imagine fissures to have been formed above the cap of the saddle 
the western wall would have been, at one time, unsupported; enormous 
masses of rock would be likely to become detached and fall into the fissures. 
At the same time there would be a tendency for those portions of the gneiss 
nearest the fissure to separate from one another along the planes of least 
cohesion, and more or less lenticular cavities would be produced. 

In this way, the irregular nature of the western wall, and the occurrence 
of masses of ore outside it can be in part accounted for. I shall endeavour 
to show elsewhere that the presence of large quantities of country rock in the 
lode has had an important influence over the distribution of ore. 

Outcrop of Broken Hill Lode. — The outcrop varies in width from 
20 feet to 100 feet, and can be traced for a distance of about a mile and 
a-half,— from opposite Kelly's Shaft in Block 10 to No. 2 Shaft in Block 15. 
The true width of the outcrop at any particular point, owing to the accumu- 
lation of debris denuded from it on either side, is very diflBcult to determine ; 
the apparent width that I have plotted on the geological map is probably in 
some places too great. It is composed of manganiferous iron oxide, and for 
full particulars regarding its constitution I will refer the reader to the chapter 
dealing with the ores found in the lode. 



65 

Formation of Outcrop. — The sulphide ores only contain small 
quantities of iron and copper pyrites ; while the amount of this metal in the 
larger portion of the oxidised ores is not very great, and increases in quantity 
as the surface is approached. These circumstances would seem to indicate 
that the ironstone forming the outcrop does not represent a gossan, formed 
on the oxidation of pyritous ore, so we must look to some other source for 
its origin. 

The gneisses and other rocks contain small crystals of iron pyrites, 
which in the weathered specimens are seen to be partly or wholly converted 
into oxides. These oxides would also be set free during the decomposition 
of certain primary minerals, particularly dark mica. Again, the presence 
of dendrites on the cleavage planes is evidence that manganese is liberated 
during the breaking down of the country rock. 

Oxidation would commence in the upper portions of the lode and 
gradually creep downwards. The percolating waters would from time to 
time carry away certain of the new-born minerals brought into existence 
on the decomposition of the sulphides, notably the zinc compounds ; hence a 
decrease in bulk, and consequently a settling of the oxidised ores, accom- 
panied by the production of cavities (vughs), would take place. Prior to 
entering the lode these waters, passing through the decomposing remnant of 
superincumbent rock, would receive a small quantity of iron and manganese 
salts, which salts they afterwards redeposited in the cavities, produced as 
described above, in the upper portions of the lode. In this manner a com- 
pact outcrop of manganiferous ironstone would be' produced, and just as the 
oxidised ores are slowly taking the place of the sulphides, so this ironstone is 
insiduously creeping downwards and replacing the oxidised ores. 

The importance of the part which the cap of the lode has played 
in protecting the loose masses of ore below it from direct contact with 
the atmosphere cannot be over-estimated. Had it not existed decomposition 
of the sulphides would have proceeded more quickly, but at the same time 
the ore produced would have been rapidly denuded away. 

Relation between width of Outcrop and its height above cap of 
Saddle. — Independent of other conditions, the width of the outcrop would 
seem to depend on the amount of denudation that has taken place and the 
depth of the cap of the saddle from the surface. 



G6 

It will be noticed that the cap of the saddle dips to the south-west a 
short distance south of Magregor's Shaft, while the outcrop commences to 
thin out at this point, and finally disappears between Kelly's and Campbell's 
Shafts. At Campbell's Shaft, where the cap occurs at a depth of 600 feet from 
the surface, the lode has been met below, and proved to be 150 feet wide, 
while further exploration will probably show it to be double this width, and 
yet there is no outcrop corresponding to this lode. Opposite the main shaft 
of the Central Mine no outcrop of the Broken Ilill Lode can be seen, but in 
the western cross-cut, at a depth of 400 feet, the lode 300 feet wide occurs. 

The reason that the outcrop is absent in the places mentioned is 
explained in the accompanying sketch. The present limit of denudation may 
be represented by the line C. D., in the vicinity of Magregor's Shaft, and the 
line. A. B., opposite Campbell's Shaft; the absolute amount by which the 
surface of the ground has been lowered in a given time is probably the 
same in both places ; hence the outcrops of varying width are not produced 
by any alteration in the surface contour, but by the varying depth of the cap 
of the saddle from the surface. 

Eastern Lode. — This lode may possibly be the leg of a parallel 
saddle lode, the cap of which has been removed by denudation, while the 
western leg has been suppressed. 

The outcrop is first seen at the south end of the hill in Block 6, and 
it can be traced from this point to the northern portion of the Central Mine, 
when it disappears ; between Magregor's and McBrydc's Shaft the outcrop 
is again seen, and it is finally lost sight of opposite Knox's Shaft. 

The southern portion, running through Blocks 6 and 7, consists of 
quartz, together with cerussite, and it is only in places stained with iron and 
manganese oxides. In Block 8 there is an increase in the amount of these 
last-mentioned substances, and in the vicinity of McBryde's Shaft it forms a 
large bluff of compact manganiferous ironstone. 

Movements of a similar nature to those described in connection with 
the main lode appear to have taken place in the hanging wall of this one ; in 
places these movements have displaced the footwall of the main lode. 

North-eastern Lode. — The outcrop of this lode commences opposite 
No. 2 Shaft of the British Mine, and discontinuous portions of it can be 
traced from this point through the British and Junction Mines into the 
North Mine. 



Transverse Section through MacGregor Shaft showing 

relation of Main B.M.tode to Western lode. 

Looking North East. 



Scale 



JSS" Feet. 



M4C GReCO/f SHAfT, M/tfN B/fOX£N HILL LODt 



VD£ 1LAY CO* SHAFT 
(See knUrged aezVon.'i. 




Proved portions 
of lodes Shown 
by ha tched lines- 



fnla.rgecf Section Sca.le £_ 



UND£/llAY CO 
SHAFT 




JB Feet. 



CL.h.. ^Oxide. of Iron 
with Lea.d <ia.rbona.te. 

C Lea.d ca.rbonate.- 



AT THE OOVT. PRINTIMQ OFFICE, 



SVDNEY. NEW SOUTH WALES. 



67 

In the British Mine this outcrop consists of a compact manganiferous 
ironstone ; but after the trend alters in the Junction Mine it becomes less 
compact, and has a large quantity of aluminous material and quartz mixed 
with it. 

This lode may represent the denuded remnant of another saddle lode, 
or, as I think more likely, the fissure which preceded it was produced coinci- 
dently with the lateral flexure in the strata occurring at this spot. The 
widest portion of the lode occupies the angle of the bend, while the lode thins 
out on either side of this point ; in fact, its form resembles somewhat that of 
a saddle lode tilted over 90°. 

Western Lode. — In the early days of mining at Broken Hill an 
outcrop of gossanous ironstone, containing a small quantity of carbonate of 
lead, was observed near the western peg of Blocks 10 and 11, and a shaft was 
sunk to prove it below. This shaft passed through the ironstone and entered 
the country rock at a short distance below the surface, thereby discouraging 
the prospectors. 

The ironstone undoubtedly represents the outcrop of a parallel saddle 
lode. During the period I was engaged in my survey at Broken Hill this 
lode was further explored by Mr. Langdon, Manager at the Underlay Blocks 
Silver-mining Company. A cross-cut was driven on the ironstone, which was 
found to dip eastward into Block 10 at a point distant 20 feet from the 
bottom of the shaft ; from the eastern end of the cross-cut a winze 12 feet 
deep was sunk, and at the bottom of this winze, in a short eastern cross-cut, 
some rich carbonate of lead ore was discovered. The western leg of the 
saddle would appear to be suppressed, as the gossan pinches out on this side 
of the shaft. South of the shaft the ironstone cap gives place to quartz 
stained with copper carbonate, while to the north, owing to the general 
southern dip of the formations, it crops out at the surface. 

The rolling over of the schists can be well seen in a small quarry, 
situated a little north of the shaft, which has been excavated to explore the 
outcrop. At the time of my departure sufficient work had not been per- 
formed to enable me to form any opinion as to the magnitude of the ore 
deposit ; but I think the discovery of this lode of considerable importance, 
and would recommend its rigorous exploration. 



68 

The Ore contained in Lodes is probably the result of lateral 

secretion. — ^The information which has been at present obtained as to the 
origin and cause of deposition of the contents of metalliferous lodes is very 
meagre, and an exhaustive inquiry in the case of one particular lode would in 
a great measure be applicable to all of them. 

Prof. Sandberger, in the year 1873, demonstrated that ihe metals 
found in metalliferous lodes are present in extremely minute quantities in 
the silicates of crystalline rocks. These results were in accordance with the 
theory of lateral secretion, which supposed the lode contents to have been 
originally finely disseminated through the rocks in which the lodes 
occur. As to the conditions which determined the removal of these scattered 
particles of lead, silver, copper, zinc, &c., and caused their concentration in 
fissures and elsewhere, nothing is definitely known ; many theories have 
been advanced to account for this circumstance, but no exact demonstration 
has shown the truth of any one of them. 

Chemists and geologists are now ready to admit that many reactions, 
which they are unable to simulate in the laboratory, have taken place 
between the various elements composing the earth's crust. They point out 
that under extreme degrees of temperature and pressure seemingly impossible 
reactions may take place ; and that our inability to detect extremely small 
quantities of a substance dissolved in a liquid may have caused us to say 
such substance is insoluble, whereas the long continued passage of the liquid 
over this substance might effect its complete removal in solution. 

The Broken Hill Lodes are surrounded on three sides by country rock, 
and at one time were closed in above also. Such being the case, the theories 
of igneous injection, sublimation, &c., are out of the question. All the 
circumstances, I think, would seem to point to the ore having been carried in 
solution from the country rock, through which it was sparsely scattered, and 
slowly deposited in its present position. 



69 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Mines exploiting the Beoken Hill Lodes. 

Broken Hill Proprietary Company {Limited) ; Broken Hill Proprietary 
Block 10 Company {Limited) ; Broken Hill Proprietary Block 14 
Company {Limited) ; British Broken Hill Proprietary Company 
{Limited) ; Central Broken Hill Silver-mining Company {Limited) ; 
Broken Btill South Silver-mining Company {Limited); Broken Hill 
Junction Silver-mining Company {Limited) ; Broken Hill North Junction 
Silver-mining Company {Limited) ; North Broken Hill Silver-mining 
Company {Limited). Explorations carried out with a view of proving the 
Broken Hill Lode on its underlay. 

Broken Hill Proprietary Mine. 

Lodes. — Broken Hill Lode. — ^The cap of the saddle enters the Pro- 
prietary Mine from Block 10 ; at Macgregor's Shaft it occurs above the 230 feet 
level; at McBryde's Shaft, a little above No. 3 level; at Knox's Shaft in a 
position identical with that at McBryde's Shaft; at McCulloch's Shaft, 
immediately below the 216-feet level ; while between McCulloch's Shaft and 
Rasp's Shaft it crops out at the surface. In the longitudinal section of the 
lode which accompanies this Memoir, those portions of the saddle which have 
been exposed in the present workings, and consequently which I have been 
able to examine and locate, are shown by a black line, while the dotted 
continuations of this line represent the possible position of the unexplored 
portions. It is probable that the positions assigned to the dotted line will 
need some correction as the mine workings are carried forward and the true 
position of the cap found ; for it would appear from the portions already 
proved that its trend is subject to abrupt alteration. 

The form and dimensions of the lode in those portions of the mine 
where the workings have penetrated the saddle are sufficiently explained by 
the transverse sections across the various shafts, and it is not necessary for 
me to say any more in reference to them, so I will confine myself to a 
discussion of those portions of the lode yet unproved. 



70 

JamiesorCs Shaft. — The lode in the neighbourhood of this shaft has been 
thoroughly explored to a depth of nearly 300 feet, and shown to vary in 
width from 40 feet to 60 feet. At a depth of 400 feet the shaft passed 
through a lode of sulphide or(^ 20 feet thick ; this lode was again met with in 
the western cross-cuts, at the 485-feet and 515-feet levels respectively, and 
found to be of the same thickness and to underlay N.W. At a depth of 485 
feet a cross-cut has been driven eastward for a distance of 50 feet through 
country rock. 

In view of all the circumstances, I am of opinion that the cap of the 
saddle will be found somewhere between the 285-feet level and the point 
where the shaft passed through the lode ; that the comparatively speaking 
narrow lode met with in the lower levels of the mine represents the western 
leg of the saddle lode ; and that the eastern leg should be met with a con- 
siderable distance eastward of the present end of the 485-feet eastern 
cross-cut. 

Fatterson^s Shaft. — This shaft differs from Jamieson's Shaft in being 
situated on the eastern side of the lode. The upper portions of the lode — 
above the 238-f eet level — have not been thoroughly explored yet, but between 
the 238-feet and 338-feet levels it is about 100 feet wide. At a depth of 
538 feet a cross-cut has been driven westward for a distance of 90 feet- 
without meeting any defined body of ore. As to the depth at which the cap 
of the saddle occurs below the 338-feet level, no evidence is available. It is, 
however, noteworthy, having regard to the fact that in all other i)ortions of 
the lode when the eastern leg has been proved some distance below the cap 
of the saddle its western underlay is very slight, that the 538-feet western 
cross-cut should have reached its present length without meeting any ore, 
and it suggests the possibility that the eastern leg may have pinched out 
before reaching this depth. Whether tliis is the case or not can be easily 
proved by extending the cross-cut for another 100 feet. 

McCulloch^s Shaft to Wilson^s Shaft. — This portion of the mine 
formerly contained rich carbonate of lead ore, and after all this ore had 
been won the workings were filled up with " mullock." This circumstance, 
together with the fact that since the winning of the ore, movements have 
occurred in the imperfectly supported hanging wall, render it impossible for 
an exact geological examination to bo made at the present time. The 
records which were kept during its exploitation are meagre and somewhat 



Restored Section of the Main Broken Hill 
Lode in the neighbourhood of Ra^sp's Shaft. 




Si^iit 



71 

contradictory. One has only to compare the plans published in the early 
Annual Reports of the mine to learn what different views were held from time 
to time by those in authority as to the relations existing between the lode, 
country rock, and so-called ** intrusion." 

Ra8p*8 Shaft. — ^This has been completely destroyed by movements 
wliich have occurred in the hanging wall, and I was unable to make any 
examination of it ; but, as the characteristics of the lode appear different to 
those which are found elsewhere in the mine, I have reproduced the section 
across this shaft from the last Annual Report of the Proprietary Company. 
It would seem as if the cap of the saddle, a short distance south of M^Culloch's 
Shaft, makes an abrupt turn upwards, and at the same time the western leg 
" pinched out." In some places the eastern leg appears to have been suppressed 
also, and you get a complete bar of country rock across the lode. The saddle 
emerges at the surface a short distance south-west of Rasp's Shaft. Its upper 
portion, together with the lode which was above it, has been removed by 
denudation; it is owing to this fact that the lode in the neighbourhood of 
Rasp's Shaft is comparatively so narrow. The accompanying section represents 
the Broken Hill anticline with the saddle lode, having its western leg 
suppressed ; the line A. B. represents the present limit to which it has been 
reduced by denudation. 

The saddle appears to enter the hill again between Rasp's and Wilson's 
Shafts, and then dips southward for some distance ; but, owing to the reasons 
already given, I can speak with no certainty as to the course of the saddle 
through this portion of the mine. 

Eastern Lode. — Very little exploratory work has been carried out on 
the lode in the Proprietary Mine. At McBryde's Shaft, from the (No. 2) 
200-feet level, an eastern cross-cut has been driven for a distance of 200 feet, 
and the last 70 feet of the cross-cut are in dry low-grade one containing a 
large quantity of oxides of iron, but very little silver or lead. The appearance 
of the lode at this point does not encourage further prospecting ; bodies of 
good ore, however, may exist in portions of it yet unproved. 

The tunnel (No. 2) which is driven into the lode from the eastern side 
of the hill in the vicinity of Patterson's Shaft passed through a lode composed 
of carbonate of lead with quartz, three feet wide, at a point 170 feet eastward of 
the footwall of the Broken Hill Lode. This deposit of ore may represent a 
continuation of the eastern lode. 

L 



72 

No oro has been met with in No. 1 Tunnel, which is driven into the 
eastern side of the hill, at the north end of Mineral Lease 13, between the 
mouth of the tunnel and the foot- wall of the main lode. Hence it may bo 
assumed that the lode (eastern lode?) which was cut in No. 2 Tunnel thins out 
and disappears between the two tunnels. 

Ores. — Manganiferou8 Iron Ore. — Enormous amounts of this ore occur 
on the Proprietary Mine ; but it is only recently — since the introduction of 
the " open-cut" system of obtaining the ore — that any large quantities of it 
have been won. From Mr. J. Howell, General Manager of the mine, I learnt 
that at the time of my departure (October, 1892) 80,000 cubic yards of the 
outcrop had been removed, and from this mass 32,000 tons of ore containing 
from 7 to 45 oz. of silver per ton, and on an average 18 per cent, of lead, had 
been obtained. It will be readily seen that this ore, containing a con- 
siderable quantity of lead carbonate, and an amount of iron oxide largely in 
excess of that required to satisfy the silica which it contains, is particularly 
well suited for mixing with the rich dry siliceous ores in the blast furnace ; 
hence it forms a valuable asset. 

Carbonate of Lead Ores. — The largest carbonate of lead ore body("B") 
enters the northern portion of the mine from Block 14. It rises to the 
surface with the saddle, and a portion has been destroyed by denudation. 
From M^CuUoch's Shaft it pursues a southerly course, underneath the masses 
of low-grade ores, until it finally disappears a short distance south of 
Brodribb's Shaft. Nearly the whole of the ore which it formerly contained 
has now been removed. 

Another carbonate of lead ore body (" E") is situated between Drew's 
Shaft and the boundary of Block 10. It is a continuation of that one which 
has yielded ore containing such phenomenal amounts of silver in Block 10. 
In the upper portion of the body there yet remains a considerable quantity 
of ore, which will be won when the quarry, already commenced in this portion 
of the mine, is extended. 

Dry High-grade Ore. — ^Two large bonanzas composed of this class of 
ore exist in the Proprieta/ry Mine. One (" ") occupied nearly the whole of 
that portion of the lode situated between Jamieson's and Wigg's Shafts. Its 
boundaries have been fully determined, and only a small quantity of ore at 
present remains to be won. 



73 

The other ore body (" D ") is situated between Wigg's and M*Bryde's 
Shafts. The dimensions of this have not yet been fully determined ; but it 
has been proved down to the 400-feet level in the eastern leg of the lode. 
Probably it rides on the top of the saddle, and sends a branch also into the 
western leg. It contains a considerable quantity of un worked ore. 

Dry Low-grade Ore. — That portion of the lode which intervenes 
between the sulphides and ironstone cap, and is not occupied by any of the 
ore bodies previously described, is filled with the class of ore enumerated 
above. 

The quantity of this ore present in the mine is enormous, and should 
it be possible to treat it economically, as there is good reason to believe will 
be the case, the mine will be enabled to keep up a large output of silver from 
this source alone for several years to come. 

Sulphide Ore. — In order that he may obtain some idea of the enormous 
quantities of this class of ore at present in sight, or that may be reasonably 
expected to occur but a short distance beyond the present workings, I will 
refer the reader to the longitudinal sections and plans accompanying this 
Memoir. 

The Proprietary Mine authorities have taken samples of these ores 
from various points along the lino of lode and assayed them. The average 
result of the assays of twenty-seven samples was as follows : — 

Lead 27f per cent. 

Silver 2I32 oz- per ton of ore. 

Zinc ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 20J per cent. 

Two of the samples, containing respectively 84 and 50 oz. per ton, 
included in the above average, were obtained in the immediate vicinity of 
exceedingly rich oxidised ore. They belong, in fact, to that class of mineral 
which I have described elsewhere as " secondary sulphide ore ;" and, in view 
of the fact that this ore is only found as a thin coating on the ordinary 
sulphides in some parts of the mine — that it is an appendage of the oxidised 
ores — I think they should be withdrawn. The average result of the assays 
of the remaining twenty-five samples, in round numbers, is as follows : — 

Lead ... ... ... ... ... .,, ... 28 per cent. 

Silver 19 oz. per ton of ore. 

Zinc ••• ... ... ..• ... ... ... 20 per cent. 



■s 

I 
I. 

h 

IS 

It 



P 
I! 



i 



1 



i 



«l 



TIT 

Hi 



l«l 



l€l 



2 2= "S "" S" 



I II ii II II 11 II I 



'' u H II II II I 



I II II II II II I 



S2S2'-'=SS-=S2 = 



2 " K 2 3 S 



i illlll II illl I 



: ;..... 



i n Ii SI I! ii ij i 



f 



I II II II 11 II I 



l| 



m 



iniiiiiiiiiiii 



1 1 



r n II II II }i II I 



iJ ^i I iJ i iJ I ii I i| I ^1 I ^1 ^ 



Idea/ section of t/ie Main Broken Hill Lode, 
t/} rough kdolin ore body in B/ock /O, Silver Mine. 



Outcrop of lode. 




V V J Qua.rtt And kio/in la.rgefy impregnHed 
"-"'H /f/W Oit/'e/e of /'ran ind ma.nga.nes6. 



|;::::::| Kaolin , 

i^ery rich { secondary) sulphide ore. 



I^^WW^ OrdiriArj sulphide ore. 
V//r>)\ Country rock. 



yugh , conta.ining fragmenCs of 
gi/arn and garnets .loosely cemented 
together ivith oxide of iron. 
Yielding up to 130 axs. of silver p«r ton. 



s;^. 



76 

Dry Low-grade Ore. — Above the kaolin, in the Broken Hill Lode, and 
in the upper portions of the Eastern Lode, a considerable quantity of this ore 
is present. It includes patches of rich ore. 

Sulphide Ore. — On the whole, the sulphide ores of this mine are the 
most valuable of any hitherto discovered on the lode. An examination of the 
sections at Kelly's andCampbeH's Shafts will convey some idea of the enormous 
quantities that are awaiting stoping. At the 616-feet cross-cut west in Kelly's 
Shaft the western leg of the lode consists of a solid mass of ore over 100 feet 
in thickness, and the same remark will apply to the 616-feet cross-cut west in 
Campbell's Shaft. 37,000 tons of this class of ore — containing silver at the 
rate of 36 oz. per ton, 23 per cent, lead, and 27 per cent, zinc — have been 
raised from this mine, and are stacked at the surface awaiting treatment. 

It is not likely that the grade of the whole mass of the sulphides will 
bo the same. In some portions of the mine yet to be discovered it may be 
higher, and it has already been proved to be lower in other portions. Thus 
in the winze sunk in the western leg of the lode from the 515-feet level, at a 
point about midway between Campbell's and Kelly's Shafts, it was found to con- 
tain 13 oz. of silver per ton, 10 per cent, lead, and 22 per cent. zinc. Again, 
at the 615-f eet level of Kelly's Shaft it contained 16 oz. of silver per ton, 24 
per cent, lead, and 22 per cent. zinc. The masses of sulphide ore which flank 
the kaolin are, for the most part, of low-grade character. 

Secondary Sulphide Ore. — Wherever the kaolin comes into contact 
with the sulphide ores, a layer of secondary (special) sulphides, varying in 
thickness from three inches to three feet, is met with. 

Treatment of Ore. — Very little carbonate of lead ore occurs in this 
mine, and hence the carrying on of smelting operations would necessitate its 
importation. It has been found, however, more economical to sell the dry 
high-grade ore to other mines along the line of lode and to smelting com- 
panies. Owing to these circumstances, no smelting or reduction works of 
any kind have been erected, but the treatment of the sulphide ore when com- 
menced will probably necessitate other arrangements being made. 

Broken Hill Propuietary, Block 14 Mine. 

Lode8« — Broken Hill Lode. — In no other mine can the general 
structure of this lode be so well investigated. The cap of the saddle can 
be seen in the underground workings, from the Proprietary Mine on the south 
to near the British Mine on the north. 



78 

In any case it would be better to search for it at some spot only a short 
distance north of where it was last seen, and obtdin certain information as 
to the direction in which it is bearing, or whether it continues at all, before 
attempting to locate it at so remote a point. 

Noi^th-eastern Lode. — This lode has not been proved by continuous 
underground workings; nor has it yielded, in the British Mine where at present 
explored, ore of much value. In No. 5 Shaft, at the 121-feet level, an eastern 
cross-cut has met with two lodes ; one of which is one foot wide, and occurs at 
a distance of ten feet from the shaft, and the other, which has a width of 
six feet, at a distance of 46 feet. The first lode met with has been proved by 
a northerly drive for a distance of 80 feet, and the other one has been driven 
on for a distance of 150 fce.t to the south and 50 feet to the north. They 
were both composed of a mixture of carbonate of lead and sulphide ore. At 
the 220-feet level, at a point 60 feet distant from the shaft in the eastern 
cross-cut, an irregular lode of sulphide ore with no defined walls occurred. 

. Ores. — ManganlferouB Iron Ore. — In the neighbourhood of the main 
shaft the lode is capped with this description of ore, which yielded about 
3 oz. of silver per ton and 20 per cent. lead. The greater portion has 
now been raised, and very little remains in sight ; there is some room, 
however, for further exploration. Small bodies may yet be discovered in other 
places immediately under the outcrop. 

Carbonate of Lend Ore. — ^The large ore body which has been exploited 
in Block 14 was also found in the British Mine, and occupied that portion of 
the lode which is bounded by the 200-feet level below, the ironstone above, 
the boundary of the mine in the south, and the main shaft in the north. 
Immediately south of the main shaft an extensive creep has occurred, and 
an examination was not possible. Between the crushed workings and the 
boundary of Block 14, and above the cap of the saddle, a magnificent mass 
of ore is being won, from which bulk assays yield 25 oz. of silver per ton 
and 36 per cent. lead. The stopes are reached by a rise put up from the 200- 
feet level, which is driven on the hanging wall and below the cap of the 
saddle. At the time of my departure (October, 1892) the ore body was 60 feet 
to 70 feet wide on the eighth and ninth floors above the level. 

In the neighbourhood of No. 2 Shaft another ore body occurs, which 
has yielded, and is yielding, a considerable quantity of ore which contains a 
high percentage of lead but very little silver. 1,500 tons of ore, obtained 



LONG/ TUDINAL S£C TION 



Main 5ha.ft 

iCEf^TRAl C9) 



Ca.mpbe// Shaft. 
(BLOCK /O C9 ) 



/(e//y Shaft 
(BLOCK /a CS) 



N^l North Shaft 

(CfNTRAL C9) 




Scale ^ 



/Op 



Feet . 



soon.. 



GROUND PLAN 



BLOCK 10 COX 



SOUTH . COY 



CajTif)beli 
Shaft 



KeJI 



PROPRIETARY CO^ 






CENTRAL COY- ^^^^, 

,^^^'^^'^'^^^^-f North 
■ ^^-cr^^^^^^iO^^ Shaft. 



rv-*^ 



■yvf>«'^ 






5c>*z/ ^ 



l^o^joo ^^^^_ 



t 

Sl6 rr2L63'S4 



■J 



PHOTO-LITHOQRAPHED AT THE GOVT. PRINTING OFFICE. 
SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES. 



72 

No oro has been met with in No. 1 Tunnel, which is driven into the 
eastern side of the hill, at the north end of Mineral Lease 13, between the 
mouth of the tunnel and the foot- wall of the main lode. Hence it may be 
assumed that the lode (eastern lode ?) which was cut in No. 2 Tunnel thins out 
and disappears between the two tunnels. 

Ores. — Manganiferoua Iron Ore. — Enormous amounts of this ore occur 
on the Proprietary Mine ; but it is only recently — since the introduction of 
the " open-cut" system of obtaining the ore — that any large quantities of it 
have been won. From Mr. J. Howell, General Manager of the mine, I learnt 
that at the time of my departure (October, 1892) 80,000 cubic yards of the 
outcrop had been removed, and from this mass 32,000 tons of ore containing 
from 7 to 45 oz. of silver per ton, and on an average 18 per cent, of lead, had 
been obtained. It will be readily seen that this ore, containing a con- 
siderable quantity of lead carbonate, and an amount of iron oxide largely in 
excess of that required to satisfy the silica which it contains, is particularly 
well suited for mixing with the rich dry siliceous ores in the blast furnace ; 
hence it forms a valuable asset. 

Carbonate of Lead Ores. — The largest carbonate of lead ore body("B'') 
enters the northern portion of the mine from Block 14. It rises to the 
surface with the saddle, and a portion has been destroyed by denudation. 
From M^Culloch's Shaft it pursues a southerly course, underneath the masses 
of low-grade ores, until it finally disappears a short distance south of 
Brodribb's Shaft. Nearly the whole of the ore which it formerly contained 
has now been removed. 

Another carbonate of lead ore body (" E") is situated between Drew's 
Shaft and the boundary of Block 10. It is a continuation of that one which 
has yielded ore containing such phenomenal amounts of silver in Block 10. 
In the upper portion of the body there yet remains a considerable quantity 
of ore, which will be won when the quarry, already commenced in this portion 
of the mine, is extended. 

JDry High-grade Ore. — ^Two large bonanzas composed of this class of 
ore exist in the Proprietary Mine. One (" C ") occupied nearly the whole of 
that portion of the lode situated between Jamieson's and Wigg's Shafts. Its 
boundaries have been fully determined, and only a small quantity of ore at 
present remains to be won. 



73 

The other ore body (*' D ") is situated between Wigg's and M'Bryde's 
Shafts. The dimensions of this have not yet been fully determined ; but it 
has been proved down to the 400-feet level in the eastern leg of the lode. 
Probably it rides on the top of the saddle, and sends a branch also into the 
western leg. It contains a considerable quantity of unworked ore. 

Dry Low-grade Ore. — That portion of the lode wliich intervenes 
between the sulphides and ironstone cap, and is not occupied by any of the 
ore bodies previously described, is filled with the class of ore enumerated 
above. 

The quantity of this ore present in the mine is enormous, arid should 
it be possible to treat it economically, as there is good reason to believe will 
be the case, the mine will be enabled to keep up a large output of silver from 
this source alone for several years to come. 

Sulphide Ore. — In order that he may obtain some idea of the enormous 
quantities of this class of ore at present in sight, or that may be reasonably 
expected to occur but a short distance beyond the present workings, I will 
refer the reader to the longitudinal sections and plans accompanying this 
Memoir. 

The Proprietary Mine authorities have taken samples of these ores 
from various points along the line of lode and assayed them. The average 
result of the assays of twenty-seven samples was as follows : — 

Lead 27 f per cent. 

Silver 21 J J oz. per ton of ore. 

Zinc 20 i per cent. 

Two of the samples, containing respectively 84 and 50 oz. per ton, 
included in the above average, were obtained in the immediate vicinity of 
exceedingly rich oxidised ore. They belong, in fact, to that class of mineral 
which I have described elsewhere as ** secondary sulphide ore ;" and, in view 
of the fact that this ore is only found as a thin coating on the ordinary 
sulphides in some parts of the mine — that it is an appendage of the oxidised 
ores — I think they should be withdrawn. The average result of the assays 
of the remaining twenty-five samples, in round numbers, is as follows : — 

Lead ... .,, ... ... ... ... ... 28 per cent. 

Silver 19 oz. per ton of ore. 

Zinc ••• ... ... ••• ... ... ... 20 per cent. 



74 



I 

•s 

I 
I. 

I, 

ll 

11 
^« 

ll 

li 



i 



1 



li 



if 



JL 



i«l 



wi 



I II II II II II II I 



2 ■= "2 



^ ^ H is It II II I 



I I 



: :i II li ii li II I 



S - ■" S 2 ' 



S S 2 2 ' 



3 - S S 3 



^ II 11 II It 11 II I 



1 



^ 11 II II II 11 II I 



5 S 



r ^1 !i II II II II I 



iW 



iHlllilllllili 



a s "^ s ' 



r H li 11 II II II I 



-I ^i^imm^im^ ^ 



1 



I 
1 

'a 
I! 



Idea/ sect/on of t/ie Main Broken Hill Lode, 
through kdoHn ore body in B/ock /O. Silver Mine. 



Outcrop of lode. 




V V V J Qvirt7 And ka-ofin lirgefy itnpregmted 
-" -r" iA n'th oxide of iron a.nd manganese. 

Ka-olin. 

l^ery n'cfi C secondary) sufphida on. 



IV^^WI Ordina.rj> su/phide ore. 



Country rock. 

t^ugh , containing fragments of 
goa.m and garnets , loosely cemented 
togeCAer n/ith aide of iron. 
Yielding up to HO ois. of silver per ton. 



Si^. 



76 

Dry Low-grade Ore. — Above the kaolin, in the Broken Hill Lode, and 
in the upper portions of the Eastern Lode, a considerable quantity of this ore 
is present. It includes patches of rich ore. 

Sulphide Ore. — On the whole, the sulphide ores of this mine are the 
most valuable of any hitherto discovered on the lode. An examination of the 
sections at Kelly's andCampbeirs Shafts will convey some idea of the enormous 
quantities that are awaiting stoping. At the 515-f eet cross-cut west in Kelly's 
Shaft the western leg of the lode consists of a solid mass of ore over 100 feet 
in thickness, and the same remark will apply to the 615-f eet cross-cut west in 
Campbell's Shaft. 37,000 tons of this class of ore — containing silver at the 
rate of 36 oz. per ton, 23 i)er cent, lead, and 27 per cent, zinc — have been 
raised from this mine, and are stacked at the surface awaiting treatment. 

It is not likely that the grade of the whole mass of the sulphides will 
be the same. In some portions of the mine yet to be discovered it may be 
higher, and it has already been proved to be lower in other portions. Thus 
in the winze sunk in the western leg of the lode from the 615-feet level, at a 
point about midway between Campbell's and Kelly's Shafts, it was found to con- 
tain 13 oz. of silver per ton, 10 per cent, lead, and 22 per cent. zinc. Again, 
at the 615-feet level of Kelly's Shaft it contained 16 oz. of silver per ton, 24 
per cent, lead, and 22 per cent. zinc. The masses of sulphide ore which flank 
the kaolin are, for the most part, of low-grade character. 

Secondary Sulphide Ore. — ^Wherever the kaolin comes into contact 
with the sulpliide ores, a layer of secondary (special) sulphides, varying in 
thickness from three inches to three feet, is met with. 

Treatment of Ore. — Very little carbonate of lead ore occurs in this 
mine, and hence the carrying on of smelting operations would necessitate its 
importation. It has been found, however, more economical to sell the dry 
high-grade ore to other mines along the line of lode and to smelting com- 
panies. Owing to these circumstances, no smelting or reduction works of 
any kind have been erected, but the treatment of the sulphide ore when com- 
menced will probably necessitate other arrangements being made. 

Broken Hill Proprietauy, Block 14 Mine. 

Lodcs« — Broken Hill Lode. — In no other mine can the general 
structure of this lode be so well investigated. The cap of the saddle can 
be seen in the underground workings, from the Proprietary Mine on the south 
to near the British Mine on the north. 



77 

Ores. — Carbonate of Lead Ore. — The whole of this ore has been ob- 
tained from one great body ("B"), which, originating in the Proprietary 
Mine, passes into Block 14, and has been available for exploitation throughout 
the whole length of the mine. Near the southern boundary of the mine good 
ore was mined for the height of 150 feet above the cap of the saddle, but in 
the central and northern portion it disappears before this height is reached. 
This ore sometimes includes small patches of kaolin, which contain large 
quantities of silver. Very little oxidised ore, which could be profitably 
smelted, is at present available for exploitation in the mine. It is possible, 
however, that further explorations may result in small but payable patches 
of this class of ore being found to the west of the hanging wall. 

Sulphide Ore. — In tlie western cross-cut from the main shaft, at the 
200 feet level, the eastern and western legs of the lode are seen to bo 17 feet 
and 50 feet wide respectively. They are both composed of massive sulphide 
ore. In the western cross-cut, at the 300-feet level, the eastern leg has a 
thickness of 17 feet, while the western leg has been proved to liave a thickness 
of 40 feet, and the end is still in ore. Whereas the eastern leg at this level 
is composed of solid sulphides, the western leg has bands of country rocks 
associated with the ore. 

As the water-level in the shafts was kept constantly above the two lower 
cross-cuts, I was unable to examine them, and so can give no information in 
reference to the sulphide ores below the 300-fcet level. 

I am not aware that any attempts have been made to systematically 
sample and assay these ores with a view to obtain information of the amount 
of silver and lead which they contain e^i masse. 

British Broken Hill Proprietary Mine. 

Lodes. — Broken Sill Lode, — This lode enters the British Mine at its 
boundary with Block 14, and has been explored for a distance of rather more 
than 800 feet through Block 15. A short distance north of No. 2 Shaft it 
makes a sudden turn to the west. In the western cross-cut, which is 
situated at the north end of the 200-feet level, it appears to either abruptly 
alter its course and dip downwards, or terminate altogether. An attempt to 
find the lode north of this point has been made, by driving out a long 
western cross-cut from the 121-feet level of No. 6 Shaft. Should the lode 
be met with opposite this shaft, I am of opinion it will be below this level. 



78 

In any case it would be better to search for it at some spot only a short 
distance north of where it was last seen, and obtiin certain information as 
to the direction in which it is beiaring, or whether it continues at all, before 
attempting to locate it at so remote a point. 

North-eastern Lode. — This lode has not been proved by continuous 
underground workings ; nor has it yielded, in the British Mine where at present 
explored, ore of much value. In No. 5 Shaft, at the 121-feet level, an eastern 
cross-cut has met with two lodes ; one of which is one foot wide, and occurs at 
a distance of ten feet from the shaft, and the other, which has a width of 
six feet, at a distance of 46 feet. The first lode mot with has been proved by 
a northerly drive for a distance of 80 feet, and the other one has been driven 
on for a distance of 160 fee.t to the south and 50 feet to the north. They 
were both composed of a mixture of carbonate of lead and sulphide ore. At 
the 220-feet level, at a point 60 feet distant from the shaft in the eastern 
cross-cut, an irregular lode of sulphide ore with no defined walls occurred. 

. Ores. — Ma7iganiferou8 Iron Ore, — In the neighbourhood of the main 
shaft the lode is capped with this description of ore, which yielded about 
3 oz. of silver per ton and 20 per cent. lead. The greater portion has 
now been raised, and very little remains in sight ; there is some room, 
however, for further exploration. Small bodies may yet be discovered in other 
places immediately under the outcrop. 

Carbonate of Lead Ore. — ^The large ore body which has been exploited 
in Block 14 was also found in the British Mine, and occupied that portion of 
the lode which is bounded by the 200-feet level below, the ironstone above, 
the boundary of the mine in the south, and the main shaft in the north. 
Immediately south of the main shaft an extensive creep has occurred, and 
an examination was not possible. Between the crushed workings and the 
boundary of Block 14, and above the cap of the saddle, a magnificent mass 
of ore is being won, from which bulk assays yield 25 oz. of silver per ton 
and 36 per cent. lead. The stopes are reached by a rise put up from the 200- 
feet level, which is driven on the hanging wall and below the cap of the 
saddle. At the time of my departure (October, 1892) the ore body was 60 feet 
to 70 feet wide on the eighth and ninth floors above the level. 

In the neighbourhood of No. 2 Shaft another ore body occurs, which 
has yielded, and is yielding, a considerable quantity of ore which contains a 
high percentage of lead but very little silver. 3,500 tons of ore, obtained 



LONG/ TUDINAL S£C TION 



Main 5ha.ft 

{CENTRAL C9) 



Cctmpbe// Sheift. 
(BLOCK /O C9) 



/(e//y Shrift 
(BLOCK /a C^) 



N^t North ShafL 

(CENTRAL C9) 




Scale ^ 



LOO 



if^ Feet. 



BOO ft. 



GROUND PLAN 



BLOCK 10 COX 



SOUTH . COY 



CanpbeU 
Shaft 



Shaft. 



PROPRIETARY COY 




^j-- 



^i^rf^" sh^t 



CENTRAL L{St ,^.- 

^'.^'^'^'^N?/ North 
■ ■ r^/^^^'"'^/£?0^ Shaft, 



^9 • • • 

,.-.r.r;7:'sii-' J) t 



Sc^U 0^_2S0_500 ^^^^_ 






A 



PHOTO-LITHOQRAPHED AT THE GOVT. PRfNTINQ OFRCE, 
SYDNEY. NEW SOUTH WALES. 



79 

from this portion of the mine during last June, yielded silver at the rate of 
8 oz. per ton and 52 per cent, of lead. There is still a considerable 
quantity of ore remaining; but it is patchy in its mode of occurrence, and will 
have to be picked out from between masses of country. 

A body of carbonate of lead ore was discovered in the lianging wall 
west of the scmthern portion of the 200-fect level. It was 20 feet thick, and 
separated by 20 feet of country rock from the level. While it Avas found to 
pass into the main lode to the south, it pinched out when followed north. 
The ore which it contained has now virtually all been won. 

Sulphide Ore. — Enormous quantities of this variety of ore are present 
in the mine ; but that at present in sight is for the most part of a loAv-grade 
character. Owing to the shaft being full of water, it is impossible to get 
below the 200-feet level and examine the eastern and western legs of the 
saddle lode. 

Centjial Broken IIill Mine. 

Lodes. — Both the Broken Hill Lode and the Eastern Lode run 
through this mine, and a considerable amount of ore suitable for smelting lias 
been won from each of them. 

In some places these two lodes are separated by many feet of country 
rock, while at others, owing to excrescences of ore occurring on one or the other 
of them, they are joined together. When country rock intervenes between 
them it is invariably more or less impregnated or partially replaced by ore. 

Broken Sill Lode. — In the upper levels of the mine, particularly in 
the southern portion, this lode is represented by irregular and disconnected 
masses of ore ; but at the dOO-f eet level it has been proved by a cross-cut 
to consist of a compact body of sulphides 300 feet thick. 

The distance between Campbell's Shaft in Block 10 and the main shaft 
of the Central Mine, measured parallel to the line of lode, is 400 feet. Now, 
if the cap of the saddle dipped south-Avest equally as much between Campbell's 
Shaft and the main Central Shaft, as it does betAveen Kelly's and Campbell's 
Shafts, it should not be met with opposite the main Central Shaft until a 
depth of 800 feet was reached. In view of the fact that such a wide mass of 
sulphide ores has been met with in the western cross-cut at the 400-f eet level, 
I am of opinion that the cap of the saddle and the point where the lode will 
fork cannot be far below this level — certainly not as much as 400 feet. 

M 



80 

Ores. — Dry High-grade Ore and Carbonate of Lead Ore. — ^The 
furnaces have hitherto depended for supplies of ore on two large bonanzas. 
One of these is situated near the northern end of the mine, and the other at the 
southern end. Both are made up of a mixture of the two varieties of ore 
enumerated above ; but the quantity of dry ore present has always been in 
excess of the lead ore. The northern ore body (** J") is a continuation of the 
pipe-like shoot which has been referred to in another place as yielding some 
valuable ore in Block 10. It enters the Central Mine a short distance above 
the 300-feet level. Between the 300-feet and 400-feet levels its northern 
portion sometimes has a thickness of as much as 100 feet, while it thins out 
and passes into low-grade ore to tlie south. In some places it passes as much 
as Q,0 feet below the 400-feet level, but in others the junction between the 
oxidised and sulphide ores is above this level. The greater portion of the 
ore has already been extracted though some suitable for smelting yet remains. 
It is impossible to exactly estimate the grade of the remaining ore. It 
certainly only contains a small percentage of lead, and there is no reason to 
believe that it will be richer in silver than that last extracted. 

The southern ore body "H" consists of two masses of ore, separated 
from one another by country, and situated on the Broken Hill and eastern 
lode respectively. These masses of ore lie approximately parallel to one 
another, but after they enter the South Mine they unite, owing to the coxmtry 
rock which intervenes between them giving place to ore. Practically, the 
whole of the ore suitable for smelting has been already won. 

Dry Low-grade ore. — Large masses of this ore occur between the two 
bonanzas on the eastern lode. A considerable amount of sulphide ore is 
mixed with it, and in this respect it differs from the large masses of this class 
of ore Avhich occur in the Proprietary Mine. On the Broken Ilill Lode the 
zone of oxidation seems to terminate at a higher level than is the case with 
the eastern lode, and outside the ore body mentioned very little oxidised ore 
occurs. 

Suljyhide ore. — The quantity of this ore **in sight" is enormous. 
Some idea of it can be obtained by looking at the sections across the 
main shaft in the Central Mine, and Campbell's Shaft in Block 10, while 
remembering that between these shafts there is a distance of 420 feet of virgin 
lode. The sulphide ore in the 400-feet western cross-cut yielded, when assayed 
by the mine authorities, on an average 18 ounces of silver per ton, and 24 per 



87 



ore exposed to the^ disintegrating agents they must have facilitated its 
decomposition on being brought under the oxidising influence of the 
atmosphere. 

The silver appears to be associated both with the galena and blende, 
but as to the particular form in which tliis metal is present, nothing is defi- 
nitely known ; nor would it be easy to suggest experiments that would throw 
light on this subject. Prof. Schnabel states that " native silver is known to 
occur in the sulphides "*; but it is not quite clear whether he is referring 
only to the refractory ore of Broken Hill. I shall point out in another 
portion of this Memoir, that at Umberumberka, and elsewhere in the 
western portion of the field, a large proportion of the silver associated with 
the galena is present as native silver. 

The mixed sulphide ore contains from 5 ounces to 36 ounces of silver 
per ton ; from 7 to 50 per cent, of lead ; and from 14 to 30 per cent, of zinc.t 
The result of an analysis by Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, F.C.S., Analyst and Assayer 
to the Mines Department, of a sample taken from Block 10, was as follows : — 

Moisture ... 

Metallic Iron 

• • JL^OcvvL ••• ••« ... • 



» 



>> 



If 



>» 



>> 



J> 



>J 



»> 



Zinc 

Copper ... 
Arsenic ... 
Antimony 
Cadmium 
Bismuth ... 
♦Silver 
t&old 
Alumina 
Lime (Ca. O.) 
Magnesia (Mg. O.) 

Sulphur 

Carbonic Acid 

JGangue 

§Soluble Salts 



* Fine silver, at the rate of 30 oz. 4 dwt. 8 gr. per ton. 

t Fine gold, at the rate of 3 dwt. 6 gr. per ton. 

X The gangue (insoluble in acids) consists of small garnets, sand, and fine clay. 

§ The salts soluble in water, consist of alkaline sulphates and chlorides. 

* Report on the Metallurgical Treatment of the Sulphides of the Barrier Bangcs. 

t See also page 73. 

N 



• ■ • 


2065 


• • • 


5-675 


• • • 


18755 


• • • 


28-251 


• • • 


•244 


• • • 


•057 


• • • 


trace. 


strong trace. 


• ■ . 


nil. 


... 


•0925 


... 


trace. 


... 


2161 


... 


nil. 


... 


2-399 


... 


20-426 


... 


•350 


... 


18-500 


... 


•510 



99-4855 



4to. Melbourne, 1892. 



82 

In Block 8, and the northern portion of Block 7, the upper portions 
of the lodes, where it is possible for oxidised ores to exist, have been 
thoroughly explored. Cross-cuts and diamond drill bores have also been 
driven into the country Avcst of the locle ; but they have not passed through 
ore bodies of any consequence. At tlic 100- feet level the cross-cut and bore- 
hole have penetrated the western country for a distance of 300 feet from the 
main shaft. That portion of the lode, Avhich is situated above the zone of 
oxidation, has yet to be proved throughout the greater portion of Blocks 6 
and 7. 

Stilphide Ore. — Enormous masses of this ore, for the most part of a 
low-grade character, have been discovered at many points in tlie mine. In 
the neighbourhood of the main shaft at the 425-feet level the lode consists of 
massive sulphide and is 65 feet wide ; while at the 625-feet level a cross-cut 
had been driven for a distance of 112 feet across the lode and the end was 
still in ore. In Block C a shaft has been sunk to a depth of 300 feet and in 
tlie eastern cross-cut from this shaft a wide lode made up of sulphide ore has 
been met with. 

Broken Hill Junction Mine. 

Lode. — North-east Lode. — It varies in thickness from 3 feet to 50 feet. 
The hanging wall consists for the most part of garnet-quartz rock, and the 
foot wall of gneiss. In the elbow of the lode the ore gives out, and the 
garnet-bearing rock (garnet sandstone) lies directly on the gneiss. This part 
of the country rock, w^hich divides the lode into two portions, has been locally 
called " intrusive garnet sandstone." The whole of the garnet rock is more 
or less impregnated with silver, while in the adjoining mine it contains 
payable quantities of this metal. 

Ores. — Carbonate of Lead Ore. — ^The two ore bodies which yielded at 
one time considerable quantities of this class of ore were separated from one 
another by the mass of country rock referred to above. In places small 
bunches of dry high grade ore, or lead ore abnormally rich in silver, occurred 
in them. Very little oxidised ore, suitable for treatment, is at present avail- 
able in the mine. Virgin country still remains between Brown's Shaft and 
King's Shaft in the south, and between the North Shaft and Mackintyre's Shaft 
in the north. At the cross-cut from the 120-feet level of King's Shaft no 
payable ore was met with ; at the 200-feet level on the same shaft low-grade 
sulphide ore occurs, and in the northern portion of the 150-fcet level from the 



Plan of 400 ft level . 

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Junction Mine. 
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Scale Z Z ^ i£ i" Feet. 



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84 

North Broken Hill Mine. 

Lode. — North-eastern Lode. — In the upper portion of the mine it has 
in some places a thickness of 30 feet ; below the 200-f eet level it splits up 
into a number of small veins, while in the 700-feet cross-cut no defined lode 
can be seen at all. 

Ores, — Carbonate of Lead Ore. — Between the 100-feet and 200-f eet 
levels in the northern portion of the mine a magnificent body of this variety 
of ore has been won. I was informed by the late general manager, Mr. Wilson, 
that it yielded 10,000 tons of ore, containing 40 ounces of silver per ton and 45 
per cent. lead. It is possible that further explorations of the upper portion of 
the lode may result in patches of good grade oxidised ore being discovered. 

Sulphide Ore. — A considerable quantity is available for exploitation ; 
but it is for the most part of a low grade character. Mr. Wilson informed 
me that it contained from 5 to 8 ounces of silver per ton. 

Argentiferous Garnet-quartz Rock (Qarnetiferous SandstoneJ. — ^A 
large quantity of this class of ore has been met with in various parts of the 
mine. In the western cross-cut, at the 700-feet level, a wide bed of it 
occurred, having thin veins of sulphide ore ramifying through it. in places. 
It yielded on assay in bulk 4 ounces of silver per ton, while picked specimens 
contained as much as 10 ounces. In none of this ore is the silver present in 
suflGicient quantity to enable it to be economically extracted. 

Explorations carried out with a view of proving the Broken Hill 

LODE ON ITS underlay. 

The first thing that has to be done before explorations of this kind 
are undertaken is to determine in what direction the lode underlays. It has 
been proved in the workings that its upper portion dips slightly north-west, 
but after a certain depth was reached in some places, particularly in the 
vicinity of Jamieson's and Patterson's Shafts, it appeared to become vertical, 
and tlien inclined a little south-east. This eastern underlay, however, is 
only of local occurrence, for in eveiy place where the lode has been proved 
below the cap of the saddle, both the eastern and western legs have a 
western dip ; but the inclination of the former is more nearly vertical than 
that of the latter. It will be understood from these remarks that it is only 
on the western side of the hill explorations are likely to be successftd. 



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86 



CHAPTER IX. 

Ores contained in the Broken Hill Lodes. 

They may first of all be classed in two great divisions — the sulphide 
ores and oxidised ores — which divisions may be again subdivided. It must 
be stated, however, that the various classes of oxidised ore are not separated 
from one another by hard and fast lines ; one variety more often passes by 
insensible gradations into another. 

The complete classification will be as follows : — Sulphide ores : 
Primary (ordinary) sulphide ore ; secondary sulphide ore, argentiferous 
garnet-quartz rock (garnet sandstone) impregnated with silver ore. Oxidised 
ores : manganiferous iron ore ; carbonate of lead ore ; dry high grade ore ; 
dry low grade ore. 

Sulphide Ore. — Primary. — Consists of an intimate mixture of 
moderately fine-grained argentiferous galena and zinc blende, with a gangue 
of quartz — which is sometimes opaline — garnets and felspar (chiefly ortho- 
clase) ; the quartz and garnets are nearly always present, while the felspar is 
confined to certain portions of the lode. The accessory minerals are iron and 
copper pyrites, mispickel, wulf enite and fluorspar ; with the exception of the 
pyrites these minerals are of rare occurrence. So thoroughly intermixed are the 
galena and blende that it is difficult, and often impossible, to distinguish one 
mineral from the other in the mass. Occasional patches of ore are met with, in 
which the intimate mixture of these two minerals does not occur, and definite 
crystals of either of them can be distinguished. In the Junction Mine a 
small vein of galena, two or three inches wide, occurs in the lower levels, 
which consists of pure galena ; this is probably a secondary vein formed in a 
fissure produced after the deposition of the mass of the sulphides was com- 
pleted. 

The great mass of the sulphides has a compact granular structure ; but 
not infrequently portions of this ore are found which possess a spongy 
texture, being full of small and irregular shaped cavities. These cavities are 
probably produced by portions of the mass yielding more quickly than others 
to the solvent action of permeating waters. By increasing the surface of the 



88 

It ha9 already been proved that the sulpliides en masse in some portions 
of the lodes are much richer than in others ; but the deeper workings are not 
sufficiently advanced at present to enable one to judge whether the richer 
ores occur as shoots with a regular "underlay and dip/' or as irregular 
pockets. 

Sulphide ore — Secondary. — Occurs as a thin layer, varying in thick- 
ness from three inches to three feet, which coats the ordinary sulphides at all 
points where dry ore, rich in silver, comes in contact with them. Resembling 
soot somewhat in appearance, it has been named " sooty sulphide ore " by the 
miners. It is, without doubt, ordinary sulphide ore altered and enriched by 
contact with dry ores containing a large quantity of silver ; hence there is no 
possibility of it occurring in large quantities beneath the zone of oxidation. 
It contains up to 250 oz. of silver per ton, and frequently as much as 
12 per cent, of copper. 

Argentiferous Garnet- Quartz Bock. — This rock is fully described under 
the heading, "Altered Sedimentary Rocks;" but, inasmuch as it contains in the 
immediate vicinity of metalliferous lodes a considerable quantity of silver, it is 
also necessary to refer to it here. It consists of an aggregation of quartz 
grains and garnets, with sulphide of silver, together with some galena, 
deposited around them. In numerous small cavities, and also distributed 
more or less through the rock, crystals of iron pyrites, copper pyrites, and 
mispickel occur. Thin veins of galena or galena and blende ramify tlu'ough 
it in places. It contains from 5 oz. to 60 oz. of silver per ton, and a small 
percentage of lead. 

Oxidised Ores. — The lode was probably at one time composed solely 
of sulphide ores, together with some included " horses " of country rock. 
The oxidised ores represent that portion of the sulphides which has been 
altered by virtue of its proximity to the atmosphere. 

The forces which brought this change about are still at work-^the 
one ore is still increasing at the expense of the other ; but a long period 
Avould have to elapse before the zone of oxidation was lowered an appreciable 
amount. During the period that intervened between the deposition of the 
ore and the present time the lode must have been continuously subjected to 
the influence of permeating waters passing from above downwards. These 



90 
The minerals commonly met with in the oxidised ores are as follows : — 

Silica and silicates Quartz, felspar (much kaolinised), garnet. 

Iron compounds Limonite, haBmatite. 

Manganese compounds Psilomelane, rhodonite, dialogite. 

Lead compounds ... ,.. Cerussite, pyromorphito, anglesite, massicot. 

Silver compounds ... ... Native silver, embolite, kerargyrite, iodyrite. 

Copper compounds ... Native copper, malachite, cuprite. 

Zinc compounds ... Cal amine (zinc carbonate) . 

Cinnabar is sometimes found as a thin film lining the joints in compact 
bodies of kaolin ; it is, however, only present in extremely small quantities. 

On the same faces as the cinnabar other films of red coloured mineral 
matter occur which are curious, inasmuch as they darken on being exposed 
to the air and sunlight at the surface. This substance has been found by 
Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, Analyst and Assayer to the Mines Department, to consist 
essentially of iodide of silver with cinnabar, and a small quantity of silver 
chloride. It is probably owing to the action of the light on the latter 
substance that the change in colour takes place. 

Our knowledge of the rarer minerals occurring in the Broken Hill 
ores is almost entirely due to the researches undertaken by Mr. C. W. Marsh 
when classifying the famous Aldridge Collection of minerals. One mineral, 
**Marshite" (iodide of copper), entirely new to science, was discovered by 
this mineralogist, and has been described by him in a paper which was 
communicated to the Royal Society of N.S. Wales by Prof. Liversidge, F.R.S.* 

The following minerals are reported by Mr. Marsh as occurring in 
small quantities, associated with the other ores : — 

Lead. 

Phosgenite Chloro-carbonate of lead. 

Lanarkite Sulpho-carbonate of lead. 

Matlockite ... ... ... Sulplio-chloride of lead. 

Mimetite (Kampylite) Chloro-arsenate of lead. 

Hedyphane ... ... ... Chloro-phospho-arsenate of lead with lime. 

Percylite Hydrous chloride of lead and copper. 

Linarite Hydrous sulphate of lead and copper. 

Sartorite ... Arsenical sulphide of lead. 

Chromo-pyromorphite Chromo-cliloro-phosphate of lead. 

Jordanite Lead arsenical sulphide. 

Boulangerite Lead antimonial sulphide. 

Copper. 

Erinite Hydrous arsenate of copper. 

Azurite (Atlasite) Hydrous chloro-carbonate of copper. 

Cuprite (Chalcotrichite) Eed oxide of copper. 

Boumonite Copper-lead antimonial sulphide. 

Chrysocolla (Pilarite) Alumino-silicate of copper. 

• Joum. R. Soc. N. S. Wales for 1892 [1893], XXVI, pp. 326-332. 



99 

amount, or the silver and lead contents are very great, it is possible by the 
use of a suitable flux to economically smelt this oxidised product in a blast 
furnace, when the silver and lead are obtained as bullion and the zinc in a 
useless form in the slag. The amount of zinc, however, present in all the 
Broken Hill sulphides is too high to permit of this process being used for 
their reduction ; but by adding a certain amount of carbonate of lead and 
other oxidised ore to the product obtained after roasting, the percentage of 
zinc is brought within convenient limits. Mr. T. J. Greenway, Metallurgist 
to the Junction Mine, reports that he has experienced no difficulty in smelt- 
ing when producing slags containing as much as 20 per cent, of oxide of zinc. 

This modification of the roast reduction process does not admit of a 
general application to the enormous masses of sulphide ore at Broken Hill, 
for the quantities of oxidised smelting ores now remaining in the lodes is 
comparatively small ; and, moreover, the method has the disadvantage of not 
saving any of the zinc. 

Professor Schnabel* discusses at some length, and criticises adversely 
the roast reduction process as a method of treatment for the Broken Hill ores, 
either when applied to the crude ore, or concentrates. 

Argentiferous Garnet-quartz Rock (Oarnet SandstoneJ. — The process 
which depends primarily upon the fact that, under certain conditions, chloride 
of silver is soluble in a solution of ammonia, has been used as a method of 
treatment for this ore. If, as is the case with the garnet rock, the silver is 
present as a sulphide, as a preliminary operation a chloridising roasting has 
to be undertaken, when the sulphur is set free and the metal obtained as 
chloride. The chloridised ore is then brought into contact with a solution 
of ammonia under pressure in vats. After a certain interval has elapsed the 
argentiferous solution is run off, and on the application of heat, the ammonia 
is liberated and the silver precipitated. A small ammonia plant was erected 
upon the Junction North Mine, but on failure attending its application to 
the ore its use was abandoned, and the lixiviation with hyposulphite of soda 
introduced in its place. 

* Loc. cU, p. 20. 



94 

a small quantity of lead ore ; there are no smelting works on the mine, and 
in consequence all the ore is sold to other mines or smelting companies. 
Block 14 and the British Mine yield supplies of low-grade carbonate of lead 
ore, and the metallurgists buy large quantities of high-grade dry ore from 
Block 10, in order to mix with their own ore and produce a bullion of 
convenient grade. The Central Mine has endeavoured to carry on its smelting 
operations without the introduction of foreign ore ; but, owing to lead not being 
present in sufficient quantities, reduction has been effected under considerable 
difficulties. This mine has tried the somewhat novel experiment of attempting 
to make up the deficiency in lead by adding to the furnace charge a quantity of 
low grade silver-lead bullion. The bullion rapidly passes through the ore into 
the well of the furnace, and the same intimate contact between the particles 
of silver and lead that is brought about when the latter is slowly liberated 
in sitUy does not occur ; hence, when this practice is resorted to the proportion 
extracted of the total silver present is lowered. The South Mine has been 
enabled to obtain a sufficient quantity of lead ores from its own s topes. 

Cost of Smelting. — I have extracted from the yearly and half-yearly 
reports of the Proprietary Mine, the' cost of smelting from the year 1887 to 
the present date. These figures represent the total cost of smelting one net 
ton of ore, including labour, fuel, flux, &c., and the delivery of the bullion 
produced on to the railway trucks : — 

£ s. d. £> 8. d. 

1887 2 7 3 1890 1 13 9 

1888 1 13 9 1891 1- 16 10 

1889 1 13 10 1892 1 14 9 

The increased cost of smelting previous to the year 1888 was owing 
in a large measure to the expense of carting the necessary coke and other 
supplies over long distances ; the railway from Adelaide to Broken Hill not 
having then been completed. 

Fluxes. — ^The raising and carting of flux forms an important industry 
at Broken Hill, and gives employment to a large number of people. 

Ironstone. — Some of the smelting ores contain an amount of iron 
oxide which is sufficient, in conjunction with the limestone added, to satisfy the 
silica, and produce a slag having the requisite fusibility. In the Proprietary 
Mine large quantities of ore are quarried from tlie outcrop containing more 
iron than is necessary for its own fluxing, and so, by a judicious blending of 



95 

this ore with that obtained from other parts of the inme, the deficiency of 
iron in the latter is made up ; hence this mine is to a large extent indepen- 
dent of outside sources for its supply of ironstone. 

Abundant deposits of ironstone can be obtained in the neighbourhood 
of Broken Hill, and within a radius of about 16 miles from the mines. It 
occurs for the most part as superficial deposits of haematite, which may be 
either the outcrops of silver and copper lodes, or irregular masses which 
perhaps owe their origin to springs. As an example of the former class may 
be mentioned the Thackaringa and Balaclava deposits, while the latter class 
is represented by the '* ironstone blow" in Moorkaie. The Corona lode, a 
discontinuous mass of ironstone, nine miles long, which is fully described else- 
where, has yielded some good flux ; and, inasmuch as the terminus of the 
Tarrawingee Tramway adjoins its southern end, this source of ironstone is now 
available. 

The parcels of ironstone are sampled and assayed before the mine 
authorities receive delivery. The price to be paid for a particular lot may 
vary between the limits of £1 and £1 Gs. per ton ; should either the silica 
exceed 10 per cent., or the iron present fall below 45 \)qv cent., it is con- 
demned as unfit for use. 

Some of the ironstone, particularly that raised from the backs of 
argentiferous lodes, contains several ounces of silver, and its value should in 
consequence be enhanced by the market price of the silver which it contains. 

Limestone. — Previous to the completion of the Tarrawingee Tramway 
in 1892, all the limestone flux was obtained from the deposits of so-called 
rubble limestone, which overlie the schists in many places, notably in tlic 
neighbourhood of Acacia. A description of these beds of limestone, and 
also the crystalline limestones which occur at Tarrawingee and elsewhere, 
will be found in another place. 

The average amount of impurity in the rubble limestone is stated by 

Mr. Schlapp, Assistant General Manager of the Proprietary Mine, to be about 

12 per cent., and the amount of available lime is 42 per cent., Avhile the 

Tarrawingee stone contains under 6 per cent, impurity, and 49 per cent. 

available lime. It will be seen that the Tarrawingee flux is much superior 

to the rubble variety, and at the time the Writer left Broken Hill all the 

furnaces were being supplied with it, necessitating over 200 tons being 

delivered daily on the mines. 
o 



96 

Fuel. — The fuel used in the blast furnaces has always been coke. 
Excepting small quantities from Germany and New Zealand, all of it has 
been imported from Great Britain. In the concluding portions of his 
exhaustive report on the coke-making industry of New South Wales, which 
has recently been published, the Government Geologist states as follows : — * 

" (2.) Some of the cokes at present manufactured in New South Wales 
are nearly equal, as regards ash, to the average of the imported 
cokes in use at the Broken Hill smelting works. 

(3.) Several of the cokes at present manufactured in New South Wales 
are superior (as regards percentage of ash), to some of the imported 
coke at present in use at Broken Hill. 

(4.) In regard to strength or capacity for resisting pressure the cokes 
manufactured in New South Wales are superior to some of the 
imported cokes at present in use at Broken Hill." 

Dry Low-grade Ore^ and Loio-grade Carbonate of Lead Ore. — ^These 
ores contain too little silver-lead and iron oxide to permit of their being 
profitably smelted. The methods which have been adopted for their treat- 
ment are as follows : — Concentration, followed by smelting the concentrates 
obtained, lixiviation, and amalgamation. 

Concentration. — During the year 1887, a large concentrating mill, 
capable of treating 300 tans of ore per day, was obtained from the United 
States and erected upon the Proprietary Mine ; subsequently another plant was 
erected upon the British Mine. It cannot be said that any great success has 
attended the application of this method of treatment to the oxidised ores of 
Broken Hill. As a means of saving the lead the process leaves nothing to be 
desired ; but, on the other hand, a considerable proportion of the silver present 
always remains associated with the tailings. The latter metal occm's for 
the most part as thin films and small crystals of embolite, &c., which are 
distributed throughout the whole ore, and not associated particularly with the 
cerussite ; hence it would only be possible to separate the silver compounds 
from the gangue by reducing the Avhole mass to an extreme state of com- 
minution, and if this were done fresh difficulties in the way of successful and 
economical concentration would be created. 



• Report on New South Wales Coke, by E. F. Pittraan, A.R.S.M., Government Geologiat. Ann. Rept. 
Dept. Mines and Agric. N. S. Wales for 1892 [1893], pp. 35-37. 



97 

Idxiviaiian. — The process employed is identical with that in vogue at 
many reduction works in the United States, Mexico, and elsewhere. The ore 
is first of all leached in vats with dilute hyposulphite of soda, and the silver 
obtained in solution. The liquid is then drained off into other vats and a 
proportion of sodium sulphide added, which causes the precipitation of the 
silver as sulpliidc, and the regeneration of a portion of the hyposulphite of 
soda. The sulphide of silver is afterwards melted down with bullion. 

Lixiviation works have been erected on the Proprietary Mine and work 
was started in them during the year 1890. The plant consists of twelve 
lixiviation vats, 16 feet diameter by 7 feet high, twelve precipitating vats, 
10 feet diameter and 9 feet high, together with all the other necessary 
appliances. 

Attempts made to treat the ore in its raw state were only partially 
successful, owing to a considerable portion of the silver being present in a form 
which did not yield readily to the action of the hyposulphite ; the best results 
were obtained when tailings from the concentrators were used. During the 
year 1892, a Howell Revolving Furnace was erected and the ore roasted and 
chloridised before lixiviation. As regards percentage of extraction, the 
treatment of the chloridised ores was, I understand, a success ; but the cost is 
more than three times as great as in the case oE raw ore. In the yearly 
reports of the Proprietary Mine the cost of treatment of the raw ore is shown 
to be 6s. Id. per ton, while cliloridising and lixiviation combined cost 19s. 8d. 

Amalgamation. — In tlie year 1886, Mr. Pro vis, a niining engineer, 
employed by the Proprietary Directorate to report on their mine, recommended, 
after making experiments, pan amalgamation as a method of treatment for 
the dry ores. Mr. J. Howell, Geneml Manager of the mine, in his report for 
1891, strongly recommended the erection of a large amalgamating mill, and 
in consequence a complete plant with fifty head of stamps and the requisite 
amalgamating pans and settlers was put up. It is only intended to treat by 
this method "dry low grade ores." At the time of the Writer's departure 
from Broken Hill, the mill had not been started ; since that date, however, a 
considerable amount of ore has been put through it. 

Refining of the Bullion. — Until the year 1890, when the Proprietary 
Company's refinery at Port Pirie was completed, the products of the mine 
were shipped to Europe as silver lead (bullion). At the present time a 



98 

considerable portion of the bullion produced from the Proprietary furnaces is 
refined at the Port Pirie works. These works consist of two softening 
furnaces, four twenty-ton refining pans, two liquation furnaces, and one 
dross furnace, together with the necessary machinery. The crude bullion is 
resolved into fine silver, dore silver, soft lead, argentiferous copper matte, and 
metallic antimony. 

Sulphide Ores. — The most vital question bearing on the future of 
the silver mining industry at Broken Hill is the success which will attend 
the attempts made to profitably treat the sulphide ores. 

An exhaustive report on the metallurgical treatment of these ores has 
been written by Professor Schnabel and presented to the Barrier E^anges 
Mining Companies Association.* He stated as follows : — " I would recom- 
mend the processes described in my report as * The methods which have the 
object in view of extracting the zinc from the ores previous to smelting 
process ' as being the most profitable as well as the most expeditious operation. 

" This process consists, primarily in roasting the ores and subsequently 
freeing the roasted ore from its zinc contents by leaching with sulphurous 
or sulphuric acid, and thereafter smelting the ores thus freed from zinc in a 
blast furnace, the product of which is bullion. The zinc is obtained in the 
form of sulphate of zinc, from which oxide of zinc is produced." 

It is somewhat interesting to note that Professor Schnabel proposes to 
treat the sulphides in an analogous manner to that in which they have been 
operated on by nature in the upper portion of the lode. The oxidised ores 
have been desulphurised by air being brought into contact with them, and 
this operation has been followed by the leaching out of the zinc compounds 
formed. By the application of a greater temperature, and by the use of a 
stronger solution Professor Schnabel would effect in a few days what nature 
has required thousands of years to perform. 

Smelting of Sulphides at the Junction Works ^ Fort Adelaide. — ^At these 
works several hundred tons of sulphides have, when diluted with oxidised 
ores, been successfully treated by means of the roast reduction process. 
The ore is first of all roasted, and the lead and zinc sulphides thereby con- 
verted into oxides. Now supposing the zinc present does not exceed a certain 

• Loc. cit., pp. 75, 76, et seq. 



99 

amount, or the silver and lead contents are very great, it is possible by the 
use of a suitable flux to economically smelt this oxidised product in a blast 
furnace, when the silver and lead are obtained as bullion and the zinc in a 
useless form in the slag. The amount of zinc, however, present in all the 
Broken Hill sulphides is too high to permit of this process being used for 
their reduction ; but by adding a certain amount of carbonate of lead and 
other oxidised ore to the product obtained after roasting, the percentage of 
zinc is brought within convenient limits. Mr. T. J. Greenway, Metallurgist 
to the Junction Mine, reports that he has experienced no difficulty in smelt- 
ing when producing slags containing as much as 20 per cent, of oxide of zinc. 

This modification of the roast reduction process does not admit of a 
general application to the enormous masses of sulphide ore at Broken Hill, 
for the quantities of oxidised smelting ores now remaining in the lodes is 
comparatively small ; and, moreover, the method has the disadvantage of not 
saving any of the zinc. 

Professor Sclmabel* discusses at some length, and criticises adversely 
the roast reduction process as a method of treatment for the Broken Hill ores, 
either when applied to the crude ore, or concentrates. 

Argentiferous OarneUquartz Rock fOamet SandatoneJ. — The process 
which depends primarily upon the fact that, under certain conditions, cliloride 
of silver is soluble in a solution of ammonia, has been used as a method of 
treatment for this ore. If, as is the case with the garnet rock, the silver is 
present as a sulphide, as a preliminary operation a chloridising roasting has 
to be undertaken, when the sulphur is set free and the metal obtained as 
chloride. The chloridised ore is then brought into contact with a solution 
of ammonia under pressure in vats. After a certain interval has elapsed the 
argentiferous solution is nm off, and on the application of heat, the ammonia 
is liberated and the silver precipitated. A small ammonia plant was erected 
upon the Junction North Mine, but on failure attending its application to 
the ore its use was abandoned, and the lixiviation with hyposulphite of soda 
introduced in its place. 

* Loc, cit, p. 20. 



100 



CHAPTER XI. 

Exploitation of the Broken Hill Lode. 

Water in the Mines; Temperature; Ventilation; Winning qf Ore; 
Sanitation; Timbering of the Stapes. The Open Cut System of 
obtaining Ore. The placing of the Reduction WorkSj SfC.^ on the 
hanging wall side of the Lode. 

Apart from the difficulty of providing adequate support for the walls 
of the enormous cavities left vacant on the abstraction of tlie ore no great 
mechanical obstacles have had to be contended with in the underground 
operations of the Broken Hill Lode.* 

The ore occurring beneath the compact outcrop is very easily won ; 
for while it is of such a loose nature that blasting is in a great measure 
unnecessary, and it can be obtained by the use of a pick alone, yet in no 
instance is it so " liquid" as to run into the workings from the exposed faces. 

Water in the Mines. — No water at all was found within the zone of 
oxidation, and though in the deeper workings a little is always present, in no 
instance has a large and permanent supply been encountered. Occasionally 
an underground reservoir may be cut by a shaft or gallery, and for a short 
time the workings in its immediate vicinity will be flooded. 

Temperature. — ^The present workings are comparatively shallow, 
and the temperature of the air found in them is not high ; in fact during the 
summer months one experiences pleasure when descending from the fierce 
heat above into the cooler galleries below. I am not aware of any experi- 
ments having been undertaken in the deeper shafts with a view of 
determining the relations existing between depth and temperature, but from 
general observations I should not think the rate of increase abnormally high. 

Ycntilation. — The large dimensions of the galleries, the proximity of 
the workings to the surface, and the numerous shafts along the lode have all 
tended to make the ventilation superior to that existing in the majority of 

• lu view of the fact that the prevalence of lead-poi8oning has reference not only to the miners, but also to 
the general residents of Broken Hill, I have referred to it elsewhere (page 30). J.B.J. 




101 

metalliferous mines. Nor have any deleterious gases hitherto been met with 
in any large quantities ; but the lode at all points probably gives off small 
quantities of carbonic acid, and in a portion of the 400-feet level of the Central 
Mine a considerable quantity of this gas is often present. 

Winning of Ore. — Ore on being broken from the face is carried either 
on wheelbarrows or trucks to the nearest shoot. Here it is run down into an 
ore box, which terminates below in a shoot (the mill of the Cornish miner) 
overhanging the level and line of rails. From time to time the contents of 
the ore box are allowed to gravitate into iron cars, which, when filled, are 
pushed by " the truckers " to the nearest shaft and on to the cage, when they 
are drawn up to the surface. 

The men are lowered into the mines in iron cages, which are all 
provided with an eccentric safety attachment. 

Sanitation. — ^The method of sanitation at present adopted in the mines 
is the pan system. A certain crosscut, through which the miners in the 
ordinary course of their work do not have to pass, is set apart for the recep- 
tion of the pans, which are from time to time carried to the surface, emptied 
and disinfected. 

Timbering of the Stopes. — In a large number of mines the 
difficulty of protecting the workings from pressure exerted by the lode 
contents is slight, and the chief desideratum of any system of timbering is 
the efficient support of the hanging wall ; but at Broken Hill, the running 
nature of a quantity of the ore, the slight dip, and great width of the upper 
portion of the lode, and the heavy outcrop of manganif erous ironstone, all 
tend to make the vertical pressure great. 

First system of Timbering used.— In the early days of mining 
on the Broken Hill Lode, when the narrow portion in the neighbourhood of 
Rasp's Shaft was being worked, the method of timbering which is most 
commonly used in metalliferous mines sufficed — I refer to the placing of 
stull-pieces across from wall to wall. 

Introduction of Square Set system of Timbering.— When the 

wider portions of the lode were reached it was obvious that no timber of 
sufficient length could be obtained, and hence on his arrival Mr. Patton 



102 

introduced the "square set" system of timbering. It consists in filling the 
space left vacant on the removal of the ore from the lode with a series of 
timber frames — the timber sets. 

Partial failure of Square Set at/slem and occurrence of ^^Creeps^ — 
Probably no method of timbering hitherto invented is better adapted to the 
conditions obtaining at Broken Hill than the square set system ; but, 
however, its use in the workings of the lode has not prevented several 
disastrous creeps taking place. In the British Mine a shaft was carried away, 
and the workings for a distance of 200 feet along the line of lode were so 
completely crushed that many months elapsed, and a large amount of money 
had to be expended in the unproductive work of reclamation, before the 
winning of ore from the aflFected portions could be again proceeded with. In 
the Proprietary Mine an extensive crushing of the stopes and levels has 
taken place near its northern boundary ; while between Magregor's Shaft 
and the boundary of Block 10 the surface has settled and become fissured, 
owing to a sinking taking place in the excavations below. In the northern 
portion of the Central Mine the uprights of the timber sets supporting the 
stopes between the 200-feet and the 400-feet levels were displaced from their 
vertical position, owing to movements having occurred in the lode, and a 
considerable amount of work had to be undertaken in order to prevent a 
collapse taking place. 

The partial failure of the square set method at Broken Hill is probably 
due more to the wrong arrangement of the sets in some parts of the lode, 
than to any inherent defect of the system. It is perhaps unnecessary to add 
that the power which the timbers possess of resisting pressure is greatest 
when the line of direction of the force acting on them is coincident with 
their grain and long axes. Hence it follows that in order to get the best 
possible results, the legs of the sets should be truly vertical and the caps as 
seen in plan should be at right angles to the hanging wall. Now it is 
perfectly easy to ensure a correct position in the legs, for a plumb-line will 
show any devi&tion from the perpendicular ; but with the caps the conditions 
are different, for the hanging wall will sometimes abruptly alter its trend and 
at the same time the direction in which its pressure is exerted will be 
changed. Thus in the accompanying diagram the cap pieces receive the 
pressure end on at A but not at B, and it may be that they may be quite 
strong enough to withstand the pressure as applied in the former place and 





























































































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T 


V 










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(11*64 -9*) 



107 



CHAPTER XII. 

The Pinnacles Lodes. 

The Pinnacles Mines are situated about nine miles in a south-west 
direction from Broken Hill. They derive their name from three conical-shaped 
hills, composed of ferruginous quartzite, which occur in their neighbourhood, 
and form a prominent feature in the landscape for miles around. 

The geological features of the silver-bearing country are similar to 
those met with at Broken Hill — the formations consist of gneisses, schists, 
and quartz ites, intruded by dykes of hornblende rock and coarsely crystalline 
granite. In their mode of occurrence the metalliferous deposits somewhat 
resemble the lodes between Broken Hill and the White Lead Tank, but the 
nature of the ore they contain is diflFerent. 

Pinnacles Amalgamated Silver-mining Company. 
This company holds Blocks 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, and 14, Parish of 
Alma, and was formed by the amalgamation of the Pinnacles Tribute Silver- 
mining Company and the Pinnacles Consols Silver-mining Company. 

The nature of the ore and the mode of its occurrence is similar in both 
mines, but the workings are distinct. Hence it is convenient to describe the 
ore bodies separately ; while the remarks which I shall afterwards make, as 
to the nature and mode of treatment of the ore, and the origin of the ore 
deposits, will be applicable to both mines. 

Tribute Mine. — This mine was started to exploit the Minnie Moore 
Lode, the outcrop of which consists of gossan, which included in a few places 
patches of ore-carrying silver chlorides and lead carbonate. The lode dips 
about 63° in a direction S. 30 W. It has been proved to a depth of 200 feet, 
partly by an underlay, and partly by a vertical shaft ; the first-mentioned 
shaft does not extend below the 200-feet level. 

Minnie Moore Lode. — The 50-f eet level has been driven on lode, which 
consists of gossan with a little silver and lead ore associated with it in places, 
a distance of 160 feet. The 100-feet level has been driven on lode, which 
varies in width from 12 feet to 22 feet, and consists of sulphide ore for a 
distance of 260 feet. The 200-feet level has been driven on the lode, which 



104 

during the year ending on the Slst May, 1892, the Proprietary Mine alone 
paid £84,300 for timber — this amount being independent of the cost of 
notching the pieces and fixing them in position. 

No indigenous limber used. — It may be thought somewhat discreditable 
that this Colony, abounding in great forests and possessing indigenous trees 
which yield a strong and durable wood, should import such large quantities of 
timber from abroad. Several circumstances, however, have militated against 
the use of the home-grown article, and foremost among these are — (a) the 
absence of forest trees outside of the narrow fringe bordering the main 
creeks for many miles around Broken Hill ; (b) the great weight of the 
timber ; (c) the expense of squaring the trunks when felled, and it is only 
rectangular timber that is used in the mines. 

It is possible when the recently commenced Menindee Tramway is 
completed, and railway communication opened up between Broken Hill and 
the Darling Biver, that with a much cheaper transport the first of the 
objections enumerated above may be in a great measure obviated. 

T/ie ^^ Open-Cut ^^ system of obtai^iing Ore. — In October, Mr. John 
Howell, General Manager of the Proprietary Mine, commenced obtaining ore 
by a system of quarrying. This method was much criticised at first by a few 
mining managers of considerable experience; but the success which has 
attended its adoption has shown that the arguments which these adverse 
critics put forward were not well founded. 

Broken Hill is a long narrow ridge, along the summit of which the 
manganiferous ironstone cap of the lode runs. A transverse section of 
the hill shows it to possess an approximately triangular outline. The 
"open-cut" (it was so called among the population around the mines) 
system of mining consisted in quarrying away the country rock on the 
eastern side of the hill, imtil the foot-wall of the lode was exposed, when 
the ore would be obtained in a similar manner. After the outcrop and the 
contents of the lode immediately below it had been removed, it was found 
more economical to work by a system of underhand quarrying ; for, as will 
readily be seen, if the triangular section of the hill is kept in view, the 
thickness of country rock present between the foot- wall of the lode and the 
hillside increases as a greater depth is reached, and consequently the amount 
of money which it would be necessary to expend in removing the "mullock*' 



103 

When the prospecting of the lode was being commenced it is possible 
that the direction in which it underlaid may not have been altogether 
apparent, and the western side of the hill being, apart from the question of 
dip, the most convenient site, it was here that those in authority erected the 
smelters ; and, moreover, the lode had not then been proved to possess such 
extravagant dimensions, and so the question of position may not have 
appeared to be such an important one. On the other hand, it is difficult to 
understand why, as the explorations progressed, and the lode was found not 
only to dip westward but also to be conformable with the country rock, which 
on the whole dips westerly around Broken Hill, they continued to erect all 
new works in the same position relative to the hanging wall. 

The risk of a catastrophe overtaking the railway and reduction works 
is greatly increased by the anomalous position ; but it is perhaps the obstacle 
which the present arrangement offers to the carrying forward of the quarrying 
operations that is most to be deplored. 



Pinna.c/es Tnbute Silver Mine. 



lONOTIUDINAL SfCTION 



l^ sort i„d 




TRANSVIRSI SeCTIOH 
LOOKING N ■ W. 

Shaft Shift 




PLAN OF 100 rr L£V[L 





ScdIeZ ££_ 



iqo , zoo 



Feet 



Si]^ f; a, 63 - 94 



'LITHOQRAPHED AT THE OOVT. PRIHTINQ OFFICE 
■VDHEV. NEW SOUTH WALES. 



109 

Besides the outcrops of the two lodes which have been explored, there 
are present on Blocks 7 and 8 a number of masses of siliceous ironstone, 
which sometimes have a regular width and trend for a short distance, but 
more often have undefined boundaries. Samples of ironstone taken from 
these deposits, have yielded on assay small quantities of silver ; and hence I 
am of opinion it would be well to prove them below. 

Ore contained in Lodes. — It consists of a granular mass of argentiferous 
galena and pyrrhotine (magnetic iron pyrites), intimately associated with a 
gangue of garnets and quartz. The bulk of the ore gives an average yield of 
25 oz, of silver per ton and 12 per cent, of lead ; but considerable masses have 
been won which contained up to 65 oz. of silver and 33 per cent, of lead. It 
is chiefly the richer portions of the lodes that have hitherto been raised and 
sent away from the mines. About 75 per cent, of the silver present in the 
ore is associated with the pyrrhotine, and consequently only 25 per cent, 
with the galena ; but where large masses of the first mineral occur free from 
an admixture of the last one, they contain only an insignificant quantity of 
silver, or this metal is absent altogether. This would seem to suggest that 
the silver in the pyrrhotine was of secondary origin, and that it had originally 
been deposited in association with the galena, 

The greater portion of the ore, as I have previously stated, contains 
about 25 oz. of silver per ton and 12 per cent, of lead — that is, the amount 
of silver per unit of lead is rather more than 2 oz. ; hence the galena may 
have originally contained silver at the rate o£ 170 oz. per ton. 

Very little zinc is present in the mass of the ore. I was informed by 
the general manager, Mr. 0. Beaumont, that the amount of this metal 
present in any of the parcels of ore hitherto sent away from the mines has 
not been above 4 per cent. Occasionally, however, masses of zinc blende, 
either partly or wholly detached from the lodes, are met with in the 
country rock. A noticeable example of one of these zinc deposits occurs in 
the hanging wall at the south-east end of the Pinnacles Tribute Mine. 

A little antimony in the form of stibnite is distributed all through 
the ore. 

Treatment of the Ore.—SmelUng.—The Pinnacles Group Company, 
who bought the leases from the prospectors and started active mining 
operations upon them, erected an 80-ton water-jacket blast furnace and the 



108 

• • 

is ten feet wide for a distance of 230 feet. The lode terminates in the end of 
the level going south-east, and 80 feet inside of the end going north-west. 
At a point 80 feet north-west of the cross-cut from the shaft a winze has 
heen sunk, and from the bottom of this winze a level has been driven 40 feet 
on lode. The 300-feet level has been driven 40 feet on the lode, which 
is 10 feet wide. 

Parallel Lode. — From the north-west ends of the 100-feet and 200-f eet 
levels, cross-cuts have been driven in a south-west direction, and at distances 
of 70 feet in each case from the levels a parallel lode has been cut. At the 
200-feet level a drive 100 feet long has been driven on this lode, and the ore 
stoped out overhead nearly up to the 100-feet level. In some places the 
two lodes unite owing to the intervening country rock giving place to 
ore. Near the point where the winze is situated in the 200-feet level a 
branch of ore appears to pass across the country from one lode to the other. 
The parallel lodes " cut out " above the point where the branch meets it. The 
arrangement of the two lodes and the branch which here unites them would 
seem to be a very complicated one, and, on account of the ore being stoped 
out, I was unable to make a complete examination, and so only speak 
tentatively on the subject. 

Consols Mine. — Charlotte Qreenway Lode. — This mine was started 
to exploit the Charlotte Greenway Lode, which dips 47° in a direction S.E. 
The outcrop is represented by a mass of quartz grains, impregnated with 
iron oxide, and includes small quantities of oxidised silver and lead ores. 
The lode has been explored to a depth of 210 feet by means of a vertical 
shaft, together with cross-cuts and levels. The 68-feet level has been 
driven for a distance of 200 feet on a lode which has an average width of 
eight feet, and consists of a very siliceous ironstone gossan. A little carbonate 
of lead and chlorides of silver occur, but not in suflScient quantities to render 
stoping payable. The 164-feet level has been driven on the lode, which 
is from four to ten feet wide, and consists of sulphide ore for a distance 
of 500 feet. At the south-west end of this level the strike of the country- 
rock suddenly changes, and at the same time the lode terminates. A cross- 
cut has been driven out into the hanging wall, a distance of 140 feet, but no 
parallel lode has been met with. The 210-feet level has been driven on the 
lode, which has an average width of six feet for a distance of 250 feet. In 
the south-west end of the level the lode terminates in a similar manner to 
that described in the case of this end of the level above. The floor of the 
level is in ore, but no attempts have yet been made to prove the lode below. 



109 

Besides the outcrops of the two lodes which have been explored, there 
are present on Blocks 7 and 8 a number of masses of siliceous ironstone, 
which sometimes have a regular width and trend for a short distance, but 
more often have undefined boundaries. Samples of ironstone taken from 
these deposits, have yielded on assay small quantities of silver ; and hence I 
am of opinion it would be well to prove them below. 

Ore contahied in Lodes. — It consists of a granular mass of argentiferous 
galena and pyrrhotine (magnetic iron pyrites), intimately associated with a 
gangue of garnets and quartz. The bulk of the ore gives an average yield of 
25 oz. of silver per ton and 12 per cent, of lead ; but considerable masses have 
been won which contained up to 65 oz. of silver and 33 per cent, of lead. It 
is chiefly the richer portions of the lodes that have hitherto been raised and 
sent away from the mines. About 75 per cent, of the silver present in the 
ore is associated with the pyrrhotine, and consequently only 25 per cent, 
with the galena ; but where large masses of the first mineral occur free from 
an admixture of the last one, they contain only an insignificant quantity of 
silver, or this metal is absent altogether. This would seem to suggest that 
the silver in the pyrrhotine was of secondary origin, and that it had originally 
been deposited in association with the galena, 

The greater portion of the ore, as I have previously stated, contains 
about 25 oz. of silver per ton and 12 per cent, of lead — that is, the amount 
of silver per unit of lead is rather more than 2 oz. ; hence the galena may 
have originally contained silver at the rate o£ 170 oz. per ton. 

Very little zinc is present in the mass of the ore. I was informed by 
the general manager, Mr. C. Beaumont, that the amount of this metal 
present in any of the parcels of ore hitherto sent away from the mines has 
not been above 4 per cent. Occasionally, however, masses of zinc blende, 
either partly or wholly detached from the lodes, are met with in the 
country rock. A noticeable example of one of these zinc deposits occurs in 
the hanging wall at the south-east end of the Pinnacles Tribute Mine. 

A little antimony in the form of stibnite is distributed all through 
the ore. 

Treatment of the Ore.— Smelting.— The Pinnacles Group Company, 
who bought the leases from the prospectors and started active mining 
operations upon them, erected an 80-ton water-jacket blast furnace and the 



109 

Besides the outcrops of the two lodes which have been explored, there 
are present on Blocks 7 and 8 a number of masses of siliceous ironstone, 
which sometimes have a regular width and trend for a short distance, but 
more often have undefined boundaries. Samples of ironstone taken from 
these deposits, have yielded on assay small quantities of silver ; and hence I 
am of opinion it would be well to prove them below. 

Ore contained in Lodes. — It consists of a granular mass of argentiferous 
galena and pyrrhotine (magnetic iron pyrites), intimately associated with a 
gangue of garnets and quartz. The bulk of the ore gives an average yield of 
25 oz. of silver per ton and 12 per cent, of lead ; but considerable masses have 
been won which contained up to 65 oz. of silver and 33 per cent, of lead. It 
is chiefly the richer portions of the lodes that have hitherto been raised and 
sent away from the mines. About 75 per cent, of the silver present in the 
ore is associated with the pyrrhotine, and consequently only 25 per cent, 
with the galena ; but where large masses of the first mineral occur free from 
an admixture of the last one, they contain only an insignificant quantity of 
silver, or this metal is absent altogether. This would seem to suggest that 
the silver in the pyrrhotine was of secondary origin, and that it had originally 
been deposited in association with the galena, 

The greater portion of the ore, as I have previously stated, contains 
about 25 oz. of silver per ton and 12 per cent, of lead — that is, the amount 
of silver per unit of lead is rather more than 2 oz. ; hence the galena may 
have originally contained silver at the rate o£ 170 oz. per ton. 

Very little zinc is present in the mass of the ore. I was informed by 
the general manager, Mr. C. Beaumont, that the amount of this metal 
present in any of the parcels of ore hitherto sent away from the mines has 
not been above 4 per cent. Occasionally, however, masses of zinc blende, 
either partly or wholly detached from the lodes, are met with in the 
country rock. A noticeable example of one of these zinc deposits occurs in 
the hanging wall at the south-east end of the Pinnacles Tribute Mine. 

A little antimony in the form of stibnite is distributed all through 
the ore. 

Treatment of the Ore. — Smelting.— The Pinnacles Group Company, 
who bought the leases from the prospectors and started active mining 
operations upon them, erected an 80-ton water-jacket blast furnace and the 



110 

necessary plant pertaining to it. They probably believed, when doing this, 
that the mine would yield the same class of ore as was then being raised 
from the Day Dream and other rich mines in the Apollyon Valley and from 
Broken Hill. The zone of oxidation was, however, passed through but a short 
distance below the surface, and the amount of oxidised ore raised insignificant. 

The isolated position of the Pinnacles, and consequently the difficulty 
of cheaply obtaining the requisite supplies of fuel and other necessaries, 
together with the differential railway rates, so much in favour of the carriage 
of ore, in vogue on the railway between the border of New South Wales and 
the sea coast, renders the economical smelting of the sulphide ore at the mine 
impossible* 

Concentration. — The difficulty which has been experienced in attempt- 
ing to treat the bulk of the ore arises from the silver being distributed partly 
in the galena and partly in the pyrrhotine ; while at the same time, owing to 
their nearly allied specific gravities, it is impossible to separate the pyrrhotine 
from the garnets, which form a large portion of the gangue. 

A large American Concentrating Mill, with modem improvements, 
has been erected upon the mine ; but, owing to the causes enumerated above, 
it failed to effect an efficient separation of the ore from the gangue. The 
concentrates obtained when treating average grade ores (25 oz. of silver per 
ton and 12 per cent, lead) yielded 68 oz. of silver per ton and 38 per cent, 
lead, while the tailings contained 16 oz. of silver per ton and 2 per cent. lead. 
I am indebted to Mr. Beaumont for these figures. 

Messrs. Odling and Beaumont, taking advantage of the magnetic 
properties of the pyrrhotine, attempted to separate this mineral, with its 
associated silver, from the garnets and quartz, by passing the tailings on a 
travelling-band through a powerful magnetic field. Only a partial separation 
was effected by this method ; the pyrrhotine is so intimately associated with 
the other two minerals that, without crushing the tailings to an impalpable 
powder, it would be impossible to free the particles from one another, and 
the failure is probably accounted for in this manner. 

Idxiviation. — Mr. Beaumont has lately made a series of experiments 
with a small plant, with a view of treating the tailings by this method ; and, 
as these experiments have been successful, a larger plant, together with 
revolving cylinder reverberatory furnaces, has lately been erected on the mine. 






v. 



^ 



^' 



Garnets dnd gua.rt2 



< 



rfr 







I -111 I > I !• T i 1 1 in Ttr» Ti I r 




Pyrr./io.jt inc. 
Silver 







i 




iS/i>// a 53-94 



PHOTO-LITHOQRAPHEO AT THE GOVT. PRINTING OFFICE, 
SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES. 



Ill 

The ore will be concentrated, and the concentrates bagged and sent 
down to the sea coast for smelting ; while the tailings mil be roasted sweet, 
chloridized, and then treated by the ordinary hyposulphite of soda lixiyiation 
process. It was found that when treating tailings, containing 16 oz. of silver 
per ton, in the experimental plant, an amount equal to 13 oz. per ton was 
extracted. Should the percentage of extraction by the larger plant approach 
that of the smaller one, and there is no reason to believe that there will be a 
great difference between the two results, the output of silver and lead will be 
greatly increased in the future. 

There is at present in sight a very large supply of ore, and abundant 
scope exists for further explorations of the lodes at deeper levels. 

• 

Formation of the Lodes. — The Lodes are not ^'fissure " or ''gash " 

Lodes. 

There is no flucan course on either of the walls which represent ordinary 
foliation planes of the gneisses. In some places no exact boundary between 
the ore and country rock exists, and the one gradually gives place to the 
other. 

In eveiy case where a lode ceases suddenly a sharp bend in the 
strike of the foliation planes occurs, and the ore has a broad rather than 
wedge-shaped end. The two main lodes trend with the strike of the foliation 
planes throughout their course. 

Theory of lateral secretion and replacement. — The presence of garnets, 
both in the country rock and lodes, suggests that the latter represent 
portions of the gneisses in which the constituents, other than garnets and 
perhaps quartz, have been replaced by argentiferous galena and pyrrhotine. 
At the same time replacement has not gone on indiscriminately, for the ore 
is confined for the most part between certain foliation planes, and terminates 
when an abrupt alteration occurs in the strike of these planes. I would 
suggest that owing to flexuring of the country rock the folia have in some 
places become loosened from one another, and at these places, the ore- 
bearing solutions being able to come into intimate contact with the con- 
stituent minerals of the gneiss, have replaced certain of these minerals 
molecule by molecule ; wherever an abrupt bend occurred the folia would be 
brought into close contact with one another, the free passage of the ore- 
bearing waters would be checked, and the end of the lode determined. 
Q 



112 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Thackaringa Lodes. 
The geological fonnations are analogous to those existing at Broken 



Hill. 



The two mines engaged in active mining operations at the time of my 
visit were the Pioneer and Gipsy Girl ; while small quantities of ore, for the 
most part consisting of argentiferous ironstone, were being raised from the 
outcrops of lodes elsewhere upon the field. The remarks which I am now 
about to make on the nature of these deposits are applicable to them all. 

The general appearance of the field, with its numerous excavations, 
small shafts, and heaps of debj^is^ is more like an alluvial gold-diggings than 
a place in which silver-lead lodes have been mined. The lodes have been 
exploited by means of a multitude of shallow shafts, with a few drives 
leading off from them, and by a few deeper ones with extensive workings. 
No work has been carried out below a depth of 150 feet. The outcrops have 
been won by means of shallow quarries in many places. 

It will be noticed on examining the accompanying sketch that the 
lodes, forming a series of synclines and anticlines, resemble in some respects 
a series of saddle lodes. In many places the lower portions of the lodes have 
yet to be proved ; in others they pinch out, and in others the adjacent legs 
are connected with a number of strings of ore. Branch veins sometimes run 
out into the surrounding country from the main lodes. Owing to the rocks 
having been irregularly foliated, the original bedding-planes cannot be deter- 
mined ; but the undulating path of the lodes is evidence that their trend may 
be identical with the strike of the country. 

The rocks have been much faulted ; several cross-courses extend right 
across the Pioneer and Gipsy Girl Mines, and the lodes have been heaved by 
them for distances varying from a few feet up to thirty feet. These cross-courses 
are for the most part only a few inches in Andth, and are filled with clay 
(flucan), while occasionally they contain some quartz. 



Section looking East across a. portion of the 
Gipsv Girl Silver Mine, Thaciaringa.. 
Stdrting from a. point 'A' on the boundary of M.CR 
N°7, 6i2 feet from Its S£. comer 




Horiiontd.1 Scale, C ^ "■'' r,^, 

Vertica.1 Sca.le.. 1 'f 'f f"' 



f/uccA^ crosscoi/cses occur in p/aces And tjeite U)e iodes > but, 
in the absence of definite inforcnuion as to tJieir course, t/iey 
are not located on the section. The original betiding 

/>/anes cannot be determined in che coi/ntrj root , because tbeii 
are comfiietaly mailted by the foliation. 



113 

Ore contained in Lodes. — In the upper portions of the lodes small 
quantities of anglesite (lead sulphate) and cerussite (lead carbonate) occur, but 
the greater portion of the ore won has consisted of galena. Since the date of 
discovery of the field in 1874, many thousand tons of silver-lead ore have been 
sent away from the mines ; no exact record, however, appears to have been 
kept of the amounts. 

The ore, after being raised from the mines, is crushed, handpicked, and 
then sent down to the South Australian seaboard, where it is smelted. In the 
early days of the field some of the ore was shipped to England. The galena, 
as sent away, yields 30 oz. to 40 oz. of silver per ton and about 60 per cent, 
of lead. 

The accompanying sketch explains the structure of the lodes. 
Chalybite lines the walls, and in some places the lodes are entirely composed 
of this mineral. Galena, with a few exceptions, is found as a discontinuous 
Vein, varying in width from a few inches to four feet, running through the 
centre of the chalybite. It is never distributed in an irregular manner all 
through the gangue, but small patches are sometimes met with between the 
walls of the lode and the chalybite. 

Formation of the Lodes. — After an examination of the Thackaringa 
ore deposits, and a consideration of all the circumstances connected with their 
mode of occurrence and structure, I would suggest that their history has been 
as follows : — The silver-bearing rocks were at one time thrown into a number 
of flexures, and, as a result of this flexuring, a number of fissures were pro- 
duced. After the formation of the fissures there commenced a slow deposition 
of chalybite upon their walls, and this process continued in some places until 
the crystals from either wall met in the centre, and a solid lode of chalybite 
was formed. The deposition of the iron-bearing mineral would appear to 
have ceased after a certain interval had elapsed, and to have been followed 
by a deposition of galena. It was only at the centre of the lode, and at those 
points where the growth of the crystals of chalybite had been checked before 
they had completely monopolised the whole of the fissure, that a space 
remained for the galena to occupy. 

In some portions of the lode the central cavity, lined by projecting 
crystals, still exists, either because the supply of galena ceased, or because the 
solutions containing this mineral failed to reach all parts of the lode. 



/des.1 section across one of the 
Th3Lcka.rinqa. Lodes . 




fi/«ea-9*J 



GreAt Vugh Silver Mine, near ThackAringa.. 



SECTION lOOKfNC NORTH 




\0f 



Bom A to S . 
'srCi MiCJi cement 
_ Iron Oxide 
H £. 

Dyke(?i of b/na.rj grini'te 
tf/CA the re f spar much 
Aao/inised 



Ol^.ll aiS3-S4 



i-ca/6 Z 22_ 



feet. 



114 

The presence of galena in a few places on the walls of tUiB lode is 
evidence that — probably owing to earth movements — the fissures were re- 
opened at these places after the deposition of the chalybite was completed. 

After the filling of the lodes had altogether ^ceased, the country con- 
taining them would seem to have been subjected to violent strains, which 
resulted in shearing taking place along certain planes, and consequently the 
production of cross-courses, which have displaced the lodes*, but yield no silver- 
lead ore. 

The Great Vugh Silver-mine. 

This mine is situated about two and a half miles from Thackaringa, 
in a northerly direction. No defined body of silver ore has been worked 
within its boundaries ; but it is curious, inasmuch as the workings met with a 
remarkable cavern. 

The first shaft ("A") was started for the purpose of exploring the land 
below a gossany ironstone outcrop, and when it reached a depth of 65 feet 
the bottom gave way, and the cavern (" B ") was entered. The prospectors, 
being then imbued with the idea that the formation they were exploring was 
a lode, described the chamber as a " great vugh." 

The cavern is about 600 feet long, from 10 to 30 feet wide, and from 
6 to 12 feet high. All its walls are much impregnated with oxide of iron, 
and from the ceiling small stalactites of limonite and gypsum hang. Soon- 
after air was admitted a settling of the ground above took place, and a 
complete exploration at the time of my inspection would have been 
dangerous. None of the ironstone obtained from the walls yielded more 
than traces of silver. 

The shaft ("C") was put dowTi with a view of exploring the ground 
below the assumed vugh. The cross-cut ("D"), after passing for a certain 
distance through schist, entered the coarsely crystalline binary granite dyke 
(" E "). This dyke was much decomposed ; it, in fact, consisted, at the point 
where the cross-cut passed through, of a number of loose quartz particles, 
together with a little powdery kaolin. It was entirely free from iron oxide. 

The explanation which I have to offer as to the formation of the 
cavern is as follows : — The schists in the neighbourhood of the mine contain 
numerous crystals of pyrites, and tliesc latter on l)eing brought under the 



Great ¥ugh Si her Mine, near Thacka^ringa,. 



SECTION LOOKfNC NORTH 




S3/77 A (a B . 
•ArCz with cement 
. tron Oride 
M. £. 

Dyke(?i of binary grAnite 
mth the fefspAr much 
Aiolinised 



Si^.u as 



Sca/e L. 



/OO 200 



Feet. 



115 

influence of the atmosphere would become desulphurised and pass into 
limonite ; hence the source of the ironstone in the gossan. Now, in some 
manner the felspars in the upper portion of the granitic dyke have become 
kaolinised, while the kaolin produced has been afterwards in a great measure 
removed. Probably this removal was effected mechanically by the circulating 
waters ; but these waters may not have been altogether chemically inert, for 
in passing through country containing pyrites in a state of decomposition 
they may have taken up small quantities of sulphuric acid, which would 
attack the silicate of alumina. At the same time that kaolinisation was 
creeping downwards, and loosening the quartz constituents in the dyke, the 
gravitating waters may have been depositing iron oxide, which would cement 
them together again. If the deposition of the iron had proceeded at an 
equal rate with the decomposition of the felspar, then would no cavern have 
been produced ; but if, as the observed facts lead me to think was the case, 
the latter operation proceeded more rapidly than the former, then would a 
settling of the loose quartz particles take place, they would drop away from 
their neighbours above, and a cavity would be produced. 



116 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Umberumbeeka and Silverton Lodes. 

Tbis mining district is situated about two miles in a south-east direc- 
tion from Silverton. Though a considerable amount of prospecting, as is 
evidenced by numerous costeaning trenches and shallow pits, has been 
carried out in the neighbourhood, it is only in one mine that the ground has 
been explored to any depth or any considerable quantity of ore raised. It 
is known as the " Umberumberka Silver-mine." The careful and rapid 
manner in which the lode was explored and exploited, for a length of nearly 
half a mile and to a depth of 400 feet, has made the mine remarkable. At 
the time of my visit active operations had ceased, and I was unable to make 
such a thorough examination as would have been possible under diiferent 
circumstances. 

Lodes. — Main Lode. — The lode dips, with the schists which contain 
it, at an angle of 65° in a direction S.E. The frequent occurrence of 
slickensides on the hanging wall, and the presence of a quantity of flucan, 
is evidence that differential movements have at some time occurred between 
the country rock forming the two walls of the lodp ; the ore has, in fact, 
been deposited along a plane of faulting which is coincident with the bedding 
planes. 

As one passes along the levels it is seen that in places the ore pinches 
out, but the flucan course continues, and after following it for some distance 
ore is again met with. 

These barren portions, intervening between the bodies of ore, divide 
the lodes into a number of shoots which invariably dip in a north-eastern 
direction ; these shoots are also liable to thin out on their vertical extension. 
In the neighbourhood of No. 6 Level the silver and lead ores disappear, and 
the lode entirely consists of gangue. It is probably owing to this circum- 
stance, and the difficulty of obtaining capital at the present time for the 
purpose of carrying out fresh explorations, that the mine is not now being 
worked. 



Section through Main Sha.ft of Umberumberi(a, Mine. 



LOOKING s . >v. 




/ 



/ 



■fV^r J ' toej I /Mica ceo US J 
' 7 / / / /Scfi/sts. I I 

7 ////// / 

p77/////// //// 



/ / 



/ /' .'- / /. / / / / / / 



^ca/e, ">0 



feet. 



117 

Small veins of ore frequently branch off from the main lode, and after 
pursuing an approximately parallel course for a short distance, re-enter it 
again. The country rock for a short distance away from either wall of the 
lode is sometimes more or less impregnated with ore. 

Chloride Lode. — A parallel lode (chloride lode) has been discovered 
and proved by means of a shaft, partly vertical and partly inclined, to a 
depth of 300 feet. 

The Ore, and its Method of Treatment.— The ore consists of 

galena, and the gangue of chalybite. The galena invariably has native silver, 
principally as frosting, and more rarely as thin scales, associated with it. 
I learned from Mr. TT. Dudley, the Manager, that the galena, when free from 
native silver, contains about 85 oz. of silver per ton. The average yield of all 
the ore sent away from the mine was 105 oz. of silver per ton and 34 per 
cent, lead ; so it will be seen that the greater part of the silver is present in 
the native form. Prom 1 to 2 per cent, of antimony and an equal quantity of 
zinc are present in the ore. Pully one-third of the material raised from 
the stopes and concentrated, consists of country rock, which, though not 
present as a gangue, is unavoidably broken down with the ore. 

The ore, on being delivered from the mine, is handpicked, crushed 
between rollers and concentrated by means of jiggers. The handpicked ore 
and the concentrates are sent down to Dry Creek and other places on the 
South Australian seaboard and smelted. 

SiLVERTON Proprietary Mine. 

About two miles west of Silverton, a promising-looking lode of galena 
has been discovered. The outcrop of the lode is hidden by a recent deposit 
of limestone and loam, and it is probably owing to this circumstance that 
it remained undisturbed duiing the days when prospectors were most active 
in the neighbourhood of Silverton. Its discovery, I was told, was due to a 
slug of galena, which had been thrown up by a rabbit engaged in excavating 
its burrow, being found on the surface. The lode dips about 60° in a 
direction S.E., and having been followed to a depth of 40 feet by means of 
an underlay shaft, is seen to vary in width from a few inches to two feet. It 
is similar in most respects to that occurring at TJmberumberka, and it is 
probable that further prospecting will result in the discovery of other and 
parallel lodes. 



118 



CHAPTER XV. 

Apollyon Valley and Purnamoota Lodes. 

It was upon these two fields that such a numher of rich " slugs " — hy 
this name they are known to the prospectors — were found during the early 
days of silver-mining upon the Barrier Ranges. These '* slugs " consisted of 
masses of horn silver (kerargy rite) . They possessed a rounded form, a 
purplish-hlack colour, and a weight which varied from less than an ounce to 
several pounds. Being found upon the surface of the ground, and not in 
direct connection with any metalliferous vein, they may he described as 
" shode stones." 

One of these ** slugs " was analysed hy Mr. C. Watt, late Government 
Analyst, with the following result* : — 

Moisture 

Chloride of silver . 
Insoluble in acids . 
Carbonate of iron . 
Alumina 

Carbonate of lime .. 
Carbonate of magnesia 
Undetermined 

10000 





0-48 




. 72-23 




. 970 




4-26 




233 




. 6-40 




. 375 




. 0-85 



During last year very little work was heing effected in these districts, 
and the majority of the mines were altogetl\er deserted. The once populous 
townships of Nevada and Purnamoota, which sprung into existence with the 
mines, now only contain a few people, and most of the huildings have heen 
hodily removed to Broken HilL 

The late Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., Geological Survey or-in-Charge, 
visited these districts when the mines were heing vigorously prospected, and 
has reported on them at some length,! hence it may not he necessary for me 
to say much about them. 

♦ Ann. Kept. Dept Mines N.S. Wales for 1885 [1886], p. 86. 

t Keport on the Silyer-bearing Lodes of the Barrier' Ranges in the Albert District, New South Wales.— 
K.S. Wales Leg. Ass. Papers 1076-A| 1883-4. (Folio. Sydney, 1884. By Authority). 



120 

co-operating, some might be occupied in trenching while others were taising 
ore, and so both exploration and exploitation might be proceeding at the 
same time. In a few instances bodies of galena may be met with below the 
oxidised ores of such a grade and with such dimensions as will pay for their 
mining. 

Maybell Mine. 

This mine has yielded a considerable quantity of very rich silver ore, 
and paid over £8,000 in dividends. It is situated in schists near the southern 
end of the large boss of granite, which covers an area of many square miles, 
and occupies the central portion of the silver-field. The ore, which consists 
of cerussite, kcrargyrite, native silver, and embolite, in a gangue of oxide of 
iron and quartz, occur in thin veins which have an average width of three or 
four inches, but are sometimes as wide as three feet. These veins strike in 
all directions, sometimes running with the country, but more often across it — 
over considerable areas they pursue a nearly horizontal course. In places 
lodes of ironstone, two or three feet thick, which have a nearly vertical dip, 
and are always conformable with the schists, are met with. These lodes 
never contain any silver, and the silver-bearing lodes always terminate on 
meeting them. 

The greater portion of the ore raised from this mine is very rich in 
silver ; patches of ore weighing several hundredweights have not been infre- 
quently met with, which yielded silver at the rate of several hundred ounces 
per ton. 

There still remains a little unproved ground in the neighbourhood of 
this mine, but the greater part of the ore in the lodes hitherto discovered has 
been removed. 



121 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Rockwell Lodes. 

This mining district is situated about nine miles south-east of Broken 
Hill. With the exception that some bosses of serpentine occur, the geological 
features do not differ from those prevailing elsewhere among the crystalUne 
schists. 

On account of the prominent bluffs of manganiferous ironstone which 
cap some of the ore deposits, and resemble somewhat the outcrop of the 
Broken Hill Lode, at one time a great future was predicted for this district. 
These predictions have not been verified — the iron ore was found in most 
cases to pass below into insignificant quantities of carbonato of lead ore, 
containing but little silver, or directly into a refractory and low-grade 
sulphide ore. 

All the silver-lead lodes that I examined dipped with the country 
rock, and had no defined walls. In nearly every case the deposit occurs 
along the line of junction of two dissimilar rocks, generally between a hard 
quartzite and a soft gneiss or schist ; on either side of the line of junction 
the country rock is generally impregnated or partly replaced by ore. 

Two mines were being worked at the time of my visit — " Melbourne 
Rockwell" and ** Great Eastern." 



Melbourne Rockwell Mine. 

The lode which this mine exploits dips with the country N. G0° W,y 
and occurs along the line of junction of a bed of quartzite and gneiss. 

A shaft has been sunk to a depth of 108 feet, and at this point a level 
has been driven along the lode for a distance of 27 feet. About 100 tons of 
carbonate of lead ore, which yielded silver at the rate of 11 oz. per ton and 
50 per cent, of lead, have been stoped from the " back" of the level, and sold to 
the Central Mine in Broken Hill. The maximum width of the lode is* six feet ; 
in some places it thins out altogether, and the quartzite, which forms the 
hanging wall, lays directly on the schists without the intervention of any ore. 




122 

Great Eastern Mine. 

On Mining Lease Portions 49, 98, 111, 129, 140, 143, 167, Parish of 
Tara, a bed of quartzite occurs, which has its upper portions largely 
impregnated with iron oxides. Along the line of junction of this quartzite 
and the gneisses, irregular patches of carbonate of lead ore occur. Erom 
the bottom of the incUned shaft, shown in the accompanyin.sf section, I 
obtained some picked specimens of ore, which yielded, on assay, by Mr. 
J. C. H. Mingaye, E.O.S., 19 oz. 12 dwt. of silver per ton, and 21*07 per cent 
of lead. 

Patches of ore may be found at any point along the line of junction 
of the bed of quartzite with dissimilar rocks, but they are not likely to be 
continuous over wide areas. 

I am of opinion that a syndicate of working miners might make 
wages, and perhaps divide some profits, by exploiting these deposits, and 
sending selected ore to Broken Hill, but the circumstances do not warrant 
the formation of a liighly-capitalised company. 



Great Edstern Silver Mining C-. 

Section through Siid^ft. 

L00f</NG N. £. 



ShafL 




Th/s crosscut . . ^ , 
[6d.SSC5 t/} rough I" ^'' J' ,, 

th/n veins of orel^ -"-''/ / / / 



Scd/e, 



O lO zo 



feet 



Si'siia. 



PHOTO-LITHOORAPHED AT THE OOVT. PRINTINQ OFFICE, 
SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES. 



\ 



129 

distance intervening between the overlapping ends, it is not always easy to 
distinguisli the breaks in the " lodes " on the surface, though this can readily 
be done where underground workings exist. I am unable at present to 
suggest a reason for the arrangement. The miners frequently speak of the 
"lodes" being ** heaved " when a break occurs, but in the absence of any 
cross-course, this explanation is not tenable. The tin-bearing granite dykes 
only differ essentially from those occurring in other portions of the district 
geologically examined in containing the minerals cassiterite, tourmaline,* and 
occasionally fluorspar. 

The crystals of cassiterite vary in diameter from a small fraction of an 
inch to two or three inches ; they are not evenly distributed throughout the 
" lodes,'* but occur in bunches ; none of the bunches at present discovered 
have possessed large dimensions. As to the amount of tin which any of the 
lodes are likely to yield, no definite information can be given, for the bunches 
of ore are not evenly distributed through the lodes, or the cassiterite through 
the bunches. Exploration of the bunches in the past, however, has shown 
them to contain from 3 to 14 per cent, of tin. 

Analogous Occurrence of Tin in Dakota.— During the late Inter- 

national Mining Exhibition held at the Crystal Palace, London, the Writer 
had the opportunity of examining a quantity of tin ore raised from the 
Harney Peak Mines, Dakota, United States of America. It appeared to be 
analogous in all respects to that mined on the Barrier Ranges Tin-fields. 
When placed side by side the ore from the one place could not be distinguished 
from that from the other. Mr. Josiah Thomas, of Dolcoath Mine, Cornwall, 
recently reported on the tin mines of Dakota, and mentions the similarity 
between the ore they yield and that coming from portions of Australia.! 

The geological features of the Black Ilills District would also appear 
to be on the whole identical with those existing on the Barrier Uanges Tin- 
fields. The ore occurs in bunches in coarsely crystalline dykes of granite 
and greisen, which intrude micaceous schists and altei^ed slates around a 
dominating boss of granite. Mr. W. P. Blake says J, in reference to the 
Dakota tin-bearing granites, as follows : — " The granitic masses, especially 
those on the confines of the granitic area, are remarkable for the extreme 

* This mineral u occasionallj met with in granites occurring outside the stanniferous areas. — J.B.J, 
t New York Engineering and Mining Journal, 1892, p. 512. 
t Mineral Besources of the United States, 1883-1884, p. 604. 



124 

valued when raised at £3,520. Another "slug" of this mineral won 
weighed 6 cwt. 2 qr. 21 lb., and contained 8<t per cent, of silver. Several 
other smaller masses have also been obtained. 

The lode exploited differs both as regards its mode of occurrence and 
the ore which it contains from its neighbour the Great Broken Hill Lode, 
from which it is distant but 30 chains. The former is narrow, its limits are 
well-defined, and it frequently exhibits a comby structure; on the other 
hand the latter has extravagant dimensions, ill defined walls, and beneath the 
zone of oxidation its contents always possess a homogeneous arrangement. 

It is, however, the dilference existing between the ores composing the 
two ore deposits to which I want more particularly to call attention. At Broken 
Hill no sulphide ore possessing a high percentage of silver has been met with. 
The richest primary ore contains but 36 oz. of silver per ton; while 
thousands of tons of oxidised ores which yielded from 160 to 300 oz. per 
ton have been mined. In the Consols Mine masses of mineral, rich in silver 
(generally antimonial silver compounds), arc found, not only in its upper and 
oxidised portions, but also below where no such alteration has taken place. 
In each case nature has obtained much the same result, but she has varied 
her mode of procedure. At Broken Hill she has primarily filled a lode with 
ore containing, comparatively speaking, little silver, and as a secondary 
operation concentrated the precious metal ; and at the Consols Mine by a 
direct act of segregation from the country rock, she produced masses of 
mineral w^hich contained in some instances over 80 per cent, of silver. 

A parallel lode has been discovered about 600 feet south-west of the 
one hitherto worked, and I am of opinion that a rigorous prospecting beneath 
the recent deposits which hide the schists, &c., on Blocks 95, 96, 97, and 98 
may be likely to lead to the discovery of other parallel lodes. 

Victoria Cross, Imperial, Cosgrove's, Potosi, and Silver Hill 

Mines. — These mines are situated between the New North Mine and Round 
Hill. A considerable amount of exploratory work has been carried out on 
them, but no well defined lodes or deposits of ore of any importance have 
been met with. 

Globe Mine. — A mass of ironstone, trending north and south and 
having a width of three feet, can be traced for a distance of 80 feet. This 
ironstone represents the cap of a lode and passes below into galena and 



Round Hill Silver Mine. 



Section t/irough Under/aj shaft. 




Scale , 



O is Jt 



'S Feet. 



Si'siia. s-^-^* 



125 

blende. At a depth of 84 feet a level has been driven on the lode for a 
distance of 80 feet, and it is seen to have an average width of 2 ft. 6 in. The 
ore contains too much zinc and too little silver and lead to enable it to be 
profitably mined. 

Alpha Mine. — Several lodes run through this mine; but owing to 
work haying been altogether suspended, and the water allowed to rise in the 
shafts, I was unable to examine the underground workings. The ore stacked 
at the surface consisted of low-grade refractory sulphides. 

Round HilL — Round Hill, which overlooks the once busy but now 
almost deserted township of Taltigan, is three miles distant from Broken Hill, 
in a north-easterly direction. It has an altitude of 300 feet above the plains 
that lay around its base, and, as its name implies, it has a rounded summit, 
forming a marked contrast to the long broken ridge which contains the 
Broken Hill Lode. 

The silver-mine known by this name was thought to be of great 
promise at one time, and has been mentioned as a possible rival of the most 
productive mines in the silver-field. 

In one respect Round Hill is analogous to Broken Hill. The lode which 
runs through it is undoubtedly a saddle lode. Its dimensions, however, arc 
insignificant when placed beside those of the premier lode of the field. 

Along the top of the hill runs a ridge of quartz, varying in thickness 
from 3 to 12 feet, which is highly ferruginous in places. Near the north-east 
end of the hill the quartz gives place to an ironstone gossan which has some 
carbonate of lead associated with it. It is only from this portion of the lode 
and beneath the gossan that any ore has been obtained. The nature of the 
ore deposit is shown by the accompanying section. Ore has only been found 
in the lode for a short distance on either side of the point where the section is 
taken. An underlay shaft has followed the lode, which varies in width from 
two to four feet to a depth of 100 feet, when it ** pinches out." At a depth 
of 25 feet a crosscut has been driven in the footwall, and in this crosscut the 
top of the anticline (cap of saddle) can be plainly distinguished. The shaft 
has been continued to a depth of 200 feet, and from this point a long crosscut 
has been driven south-cast without passing through any ore. 



126 

The ore consists of oxides of iron with some cerussite, and contains 
a few ounces of silver per ton. In the lower portion of the lode a little 
galena and blende is associated with the oxidised ores. 

About 10 chains south-west of the underlay shaft, a shaft 400 feet 
deep has been sunk to explore the country, but no lode has been met with. 

Silver Peak Silver Mine. — On the north-westem side of Round 
Hill is the Silver Peak Silver Mine. It is situated on rising ground, and a 
gully iatervenes between it and Round Hill. The country rock and the lode 
which it was engaged in exploiting, dip at a high angle south-east, and hence 
the valley must coincide with a syncline in the formations. 

Block 6 Silver Mine. — This mine, as its name would imply, is 
engaged in exploiting Mineral Lease Portion 6. 

A shaft has been sunk to a depth of 700 feet. At a depth of 500 feet, 
in a north-west crosscut, an irregular mass of galena, blende, quartz, and 
garnets, four feet wide, was cut. This same body of ore was cut below by the 
600-feet crosscut. 

The ore contains too much zinc and too little silver to be at present 
raised at a profit, nor would the deposit appear to be a large one. 

The schists in every part of the mine are dipping about 70° cast-north- 
east. 

Broken Hill Soutli Extended Mine.— On this property a shaft 

has been simk to a depth of 300 feet, and in an eastern crosscut, driven from 
the bottom of this shaft, an irregular ore deposit, very similar as regards its 
mode of occurrence, and the nature of the ore contained in it, to that met 
with in BlocJk 5 has been cut. 

A north-west crosscut has been driven for a distance of 460 feet 
without meeting with any ore, and the end is in amphibolite. 

Rising Sun Mine. — In this mine a well-defined lode, which trends 
north and south, has been explored to a depth of 400 feet. The lode varies in 
width from one foot up to five feet, and consists of a mixture of galena and 
blende. Prom the upper portions of a parallel lode, small quantities of 
low-grade carbonate of lead ore have been won. 



127 

White Lead Mine. — An outcrop of ironstone, whicli has an average 
width of ten feet and trends north-east and south-west for a distance of 100 
feet, has been explored to a depth of 300 feet. 

At a depth of 70 feet the ironstone is seen in an underlay shaft to pass 
into low grade carbonate of lead ore, which passes again into highly- 
zinciferous sulphides, at a depth of 150 feet. When I inspected the mine, 
small bodies of good carbonate of lead ore, whicli the manager, Mr. Kneebone, 
informed me would yield silver at the rate of 16 to 18 oz. per ton, and from 
40 to 44 per cent, of lead, were waiting extraction. The sulphides were of 
too refractory a nature to permit of their being profitably mined and treated. 

At a depth of 120 feet a crosscut has been driven in a westerly 
direction, and cut a lode at a distance of 120 feet from the main shaft. This 
lode is ten feet wide, and contained patches of low grade sulphide ore. 



s 



128 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Tin-bearing Dykes (?) of Eueiowie and Waukeroo. 

The tin deposits of the Barrier Ranges have been already reported on 
at some length by the late Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, Geological Surveyor-in- 
Charge. * 

At the present time only a few miners are engaged at Euriowie, and 
the Waukeroo field is completely deserted. The first-mentioned field was 
was at one time being vigorously prospected, and altogether about 100 tons 
of partly dressed ore have been despatched from it, but the latter, although a 
large number of mineral leases were applied for, never had much work 
performed upon it. 

The tin ore occurs in coarsely-crystalline dykes (?) of granite and greisen, 
which intrude micaceous and talcose schists and gneiss. At both localities 
the tin-bearing schists form a narrow strip of country, intervening between 
a large mass of granite and, comparatively speaking, unaltered slates. At 
Euriowie there is a sudden passage from the perfectly-crystalline schists to 
the amorphous but highly-cleaved slates, &c. ; but at Waukeroo the transition 
is a more gradual one — the crystalline schists by degrees pass into micaceous 
slates, and these again into indurated dark blue slates. 

The dykes (lodes) in which the tin occurs vary in width from 1 foot up 
to 20 feet, and trend between north-west and north ; they invariably have an 
almost vertical dip. When traced along their outcrop, they are found to be 
subject to sudden vdriations in width, and to terminate often most abruptly ; 
in every instance where the mine workings enabled me to examine the end 
of one of the dykes below, I found it possessed a rounded end. A curious 
symmetrical arrangement of the dykes occurs in some parts of the Euriowie 
field ; the "lode" which runs through the Mount Euriowie Mine is a good 
example of this arrangement, and I have in consequence mapped it out. 
Owing to the successive portions overlapping one another, and the short 

• Report on Tin Lodes near Poolamacca in tho Silvcrfcon district N. S. Wales. Ann, Sept, Dept, Mines 
If.S.WaJes for 1887 [1888], pp, Ul-14t. 



Plan of Tin bearing granitic 
dykes occurring on the Mount 
Eurio AV ie Tin Miry in g C— property. 



Sha^ft 2S ft deep. 



\ 



(A 



(^ 



\ 



\ 



-^^X 5ha.ft 124 ft deep. \ 

1.1 ^ ■ 



8^ 



00 



\ en 



1 ?.8 Shd.rt ISO ft deeb 
1 ^F» 



I 



? I Shaft 60 ft deep. 



tu 



5L 



1 



-& 



</i 




^ 



^ 
J5 






\ 



<A 






Scd/e 



\ 



\ 



1 



O 100 200 r^„^ 

' feet. 



1 

\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



CD 

, W Shaft 40 ft deep. 



%^^ 



\ 



\ 



Point A' is 512 feet from the south 
boundary of M.L.N^4^ 
U ill' 



ol6 na-ea-a^- 



PHOTO-LITHOQRAPHCO AT TH6 GOVT. PRINTING OFFICE. 
SYDNEY. NEW SOUTH WALES. 



129 

distance intervening between the overlapping ends, it is not always easy to 
distinguish the breaks in the " lodes " on the surface, though this can readily 
be done where underground workings exist. I am unable at present to 
suggest a reason for the arrangement. The miners frequently speak of the 
"lodes'* being " heaved " when a break occurs, but in the absence of any 
cross-course, this explanation is not tenable. The tin-bearing granite dykes 
only differ essentially from those occurring in other portions of the district 
geologically examined in containing the minerals cassiterite, tourmaline,* and 
occasionally fluorspar. 

The crystals of cassiterite vary in diameter from a small fraction of an 
inch to two or tliree inches ; they are not evenly distributed throughout the 
" lodes," but occur in bunches ; none of the bunches at present discovered 
have possessed large dimensions. As to the amount of tin which any of the 
lodes are likely to yield, no definite information can be given, for the bunches 
of ore are not evenly distributed through the lodes, or the cassiterite through 
the bunches. Exploration of the bunches in the past, however, has shown 
them to contain from 3 to 14 per cent, of tin. 

Analogous Occurrence of Tin in Dakota.— During the late Inter- 
national Mining Exhibition held at the Crystal Palace, London, the Writer 
had the opportunity of examining a quantity of tin ore raised from the 
Harney Peak Mines, Dakota, United States of America. It appeared to be 
analogous in all respects to that mined on the Barrier Ranges Tin-fields. 
When placed side by side the ore from the one place could not be distinguished 
from that from the other. Mr. Josiah Thomas, of Dolcoath Mine, Cornwall, 
recently reported on the tin mines of Dakota, and mentions the similarity 
between the ore they yield and that coming from portions of Australia.! 

The geological features of the Black Ilills District would also appear 
to be on the whole identical with those existing on the Barrier Ranges Tin- 
fields. The ore occurs in bunches in coarsely crystalline dykes of granite 
and greisen, which intrude micaceous schists and altered slates around a 
dominating boss of granite. Mr. W. P. Blake says J, in reference to the 
Dakota tin-bearing granites, as follows : — ** The granitic masses, especially 
those on the confines of the granitic area, are remarkable for the extreme 

* Tills mineral is occasionally met with in granites occurring outside the stanniferous areas. — J.B.J, 
t New York Engineering and Mining Journal, 1S92, p. 612. 
t Mineral Besources of the United States, 1883-1884, p. 604. 



130 

coarseness of their crystallisation, the constituent minerals being very large 
and separately segregated. Large masses of pure quartz are found in one 
place and masses of felspar in another ; and the mica is often accumulated 
together instead of being regularly disseminated throughout the mass. 
The surrounding schists are not greatly metamorphosed from their original 
condition, and the transition from coarse granite to schists is sudden." If the 
general description (which is given elsewhere)* of the coarsely crystalline 
granitic dykes occurring throughout the schists on the Barrier E^anges be 
referred to, it will be seen how closely these rocks agree with those met with 
in Dakota. 

Hliel Byjerkerno, — This mine was the only one upon which active 
work was going on at the time I inspected the field. On the surface the 
outcrops of the " lodes " contain some rich bunches of ore, but the extent of 
these bunches has in no instance been proved. 

bO'/eet Level. — ^Has been driven north on the lode for a distance of 
190 feet. Near the shaft a mass of tin-bearing greisen, 25 feet long and 10 
feet wide, occurred. About 30 feet distant from the shaft the lode " thins 
out " considerably, and beyond this point its width varies from two to four feet, 
while no tin is present. 

lOO'feet Level. — Has been driven 50 feet south and 20 feet north. 
At a, distance of 15 feet south from the shaft the lode terminates, but the 
drive has been continued on an overlapping lode, which is about four feet wide, 
and contains small and not payable quantities of tin ore. 

iOO-feel Level. — ^At this depth a crosscut has been driven out from the 
shaft, and at a distance of 53 feet has struck the end of the overlapping lode 
met with in the level above. A short level has been driven on the lode, 
which is 4 feet wide, and a rich bunch of ore, 25 feet long, has been exposed. 
This bunch of ore only extends for a distance of two feet into the ** back" of the 
level, and it has yet to be proved how far it extends downwards. 

Mount Euriowie Mine. — Has been exploited by means of five 
shafts, one of which has reached a depth of 124 feet, and several levels. The 
whole of the available ore would seem to have been exhausted before the 
mine ceased active operations ; in none of the underground workings did I 

• Page 50. 



131 

see any cassiterite. An expensive concentrating plant was erected during 
the early days of the field, but only small quantities of ore have been put 
through it. 

Badljericail Mine. — Includes the Mineral Leases numbered 40, 41, 
42, 43. A succession of granitic dykes, which, if explored, might yield 
bunches of tin ore, run across these leases. On Mineral Lease 40, a shaft has 
been sunk to a depth of 60 feet, but no tin ore occurred between the surface 
and this depth. 

Caloola (Euriowie Tin-mining Company).— A shaft has been 

simk to a depth of 136 feet, in order to explore a *' lode " running through 
Mineral Lease 1, and liaving an average width of four feet. Af a depth of 
70 feet a level has been driven south for a distance of 90 feet, and near the 
shaft a rich bunch of ore, 25 feet long, occurs, while along the whole length 
of the level scattered crystals of cassiterite can be seen. Other exploratory 
workings occur on this mine, but in none of them has any tin been found. 

Barrier BiSChoff Mine. — This mine has exploited Mineral Leases 2 
and 11. The eastern lode running through these leases is about 30 feet wide. 
It has been opened by means of a quarry from the hill side, and a considerable 
amount of rock broken down ; but neither on the faces of the quarry nor in 
the displaced rock could I see any tin. A western lode has been cut by 
means of a tunnel driven in from the hillside, and by a shaft ; no tin ore, 
however, was foimd in it. At one spot on the outcrop of this western lode 
a bunch of ore occurred, which disappeared when a depth of nine feet had 
been reached. 

Thistle Mine. — A lode, having a width of four feet, lias been proved by 
a shaft to a depth of 125 feet, and some of the rock raised has yielded a little tin. 

An examination of the mines enumerated above, and a consideration 
of the geological features prevailing on the tin-fields, has made me of opinion 
that the tin-bearing dykes are likely to extend to great depths, and that they 
will probably carry bunches of tin ore at these depths ; but there is no reason 
why the size or number of the ore bodies should increase as a greater depth 
is reached. 



132 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Occurrence of other Metals. 

Ironstone* and Copper. — Balaclava. — These deposits are situated 
about ten miles distant from Broken Hill in a S.S.W. direction. They 
consist of a series of well-defined parallel lodes, occurring in gneisses and 
schists. All the lodes dip west at a very high angle. One of them, which 
has a depth of twelve feet, can he traced for nearly a mile, while others can 
be traced for several hundred yards. The ore consists of massive haematite 
which, on account of its freedom from silica and other impurities, forms a 
valuable flux for silver smelting, and large quantities have been used in the 
smelting works at Broken Hill. 

The haematite is associated with copper carbonates in some places, and 
it is possible that the points where these carbonates occur may represent the 
outcrops of shoots of copper ore. No attempt has been made to prove these 
lodes below a depth of 50 feet. In view of the fact that so many of the rich 
copper deposits in the Australian Colonies and elsewhere, are capped by 
masses of haematite, I would recommend these lodes being prospcted to a 
depth of say 200 feet for copper. 

Corona Lode. — Between Tarrawingee and Corona Station, in the 
northern portion of the field, a succession of low ironstone hills occur for a 
distance of seven miles. In some places the ironstone is continuous, with a 
N.N.W. trend for several hundred feet. This circumstance, and the fact that 
so many of the rich deposits of silver ore in the district were capped by iron- 
stone, caused the deposits under consideration to receive the name of Corona 
Lode. The earlier prospectors were most sanguine as to the riches lying 
hidden below the cap, but in every place where it has been penetrated only a 
powdery white slate has been met with. The ironstone is only superficial, 
having a maximum thickness of 30 feet ; and I am of opinion that it owes 
its origin to spring waters which contained iron in solution, and issuing from 
the ground along the path of the ** lode" deposited this metal on the surface. 

* Small superficial depoRits of ironstone (chiefly hsematite), for the most part containing a high percentage 
of silica and other impurities, though sometimes remarkably pure, are of frequent occurrence throughout the 
crystalline schists. — J.B.J. 



133 

It is somewhat remarkable, that this deposit of ironstone closely 
follows the line of junction between the slate rocks and the crystalline 
schists. 

Gold. — Yancowinna Oold-mining Company. — ^This company owned 
Gold Lease Portions 1 and 3, Parish of Yancowinna, County Yancowinna, 
situated about 20 miles in a north-easterly direction from Broken Hill. 

Gold was first discovered by a shepherd attached to Mount Gipps Run, 
in May, 1888, It occurred in a small quartz vein which had a width of 
three inches, and traversed micaceous slates. This vein was proved to a depth 
of 50 feet by the above named company, and at this depth iron pyrites, con- 
taining gold, but not in payable quantities, was met witli. Prom the upper 
portions of the vein five tons of ore Averc won, and sent down to the Eootscray 
Works, at Melbourne, for treatment. I was informed by Mr. William Orr, of 
Broken Hill, that this ore yielded at the rate of 2 oz. 16 dwt. of gold and 
31 oz. of silver per ton. 

After having expended about £800 on the venture, the company 
ceased operations, and at the present time the mine is deserted. 

Furnamoota. — Three gold reefs occur on Mineral Lease Portions 22, 
32, and 83, Parish of Robe, County Yancowinna, situated about four miles 
north of Purnamoota. The quartz is stained in places with cupriferous iron 
oxide, and also contains a very small and not payable quantity of free gold. 

Two companies, known respectively as the White Princess Gold and 
Silver-mining Company, and the Golden Crest Gold and Silver-mining 
Company, were formed for the purpose of exploiting these gold reefs, but 
little work was effected. 

Mundi Mundi. — Along the western boundary of the Barrier Ranges, 
in the vicinity of Mundi Mundi Station, masses of a ferruginous felspathic 
rock, which have yielded gold in a few places, occur. It resembles somewliat 
the coarsely crystalline granite, &c., met with throughout the crystalline 
schists. 

Only a small quantity of auriferous rock was found, and the workings 
are now altogether abandoned. 



134 

A small piece of stone obtained from these deposits, which was given 
me by Mr. Smith, of the Consols Mine, Broken Hill, yielded, on assay by Mr. 
J, C. H. Mingaye, F.C.8., gold at the rate of 7 oz. 16 dwts. 18 grs. per ton. It 
consists essentially of microcline and quartz, impregnated with haematite ; a 
little magnetite is also present. (Plate VIII, Figs. 2 and 3). 

Mulga Springs and Little Darling Creek. — Many of the platiniferous 
deposits which occur at these two localities contain small quantities of fine 
gold. At the first locality I obtained specimens with large specks of gold on 
them ; the precious metal, however, is very patchy as regards occurrence, and 
is not present in payable quantities. 

Flatinum. — In the vicinity of Little Darling Creek, in the Parish of 
Tara, and at Mulga Springs, in the Parish of Moorkaie, superficial deposits 
of cupriferous ironstone occur. This ironstone and the kaolinised gneiss 
whicji is found beneath it, yield from a few grains up to 1 oz. of platinum 
and platinoid metals per ton. I am of opinion that the iron oxides, together 
with the platinum, were deposited from springs, which brought these sub- 
stances from below in solution. Inasmuch as I have already reported at some 
length on these platinum deposits,* it may not be necessary for me to give 
more than this brief description of them here. 

Asbestos, — On Mineral Lease Portions 26, 54, 69, and 125, Parish of 
Sebastopol, which are distant about eight miles east of Broken Hill, an irregular 
mass of serpentine occurs — the petrological characters of this serpentine are 
described in another portion of the Memoir. t Near the boundary of the 
serpentine, small veins of asbestos occur in it, which have a thickness of 
from one to six inches or more. Some of these veins have been followed 
by means of inclined shafts for a short distance into the hillside, and a consider- 
able amount of asbestos has been raised and stacked on the surface. A portion 
of the material raised was of excellent quality, but the great bulk, lacking 
the requisite toughness, and being too brittle, could not compete with the 
finer varieties occurring in other parts of the world. 

If only a market could be found for this second-rate asbestos — and it 
is quite possible a use might be found for it in the arts, for its non-conducting 
properties are equal to those of the tougher varieties — a considerable industry 
might be created. 

• Ann. Kept. Dcpt. Mines and Agric. N. 8. Wales for 1892 [1898], p. 142. f Page, 67. 



136 

Phosphate of Iron and Magnesium.— About two miles north-east 

of the Stephens Creek "Waterworks, in the Parish of Moorkaie, a narrow ridge 
of ironstone, which trends N.N.E. for rather more than a mile, occurs ; this 
ridge has received the name of ** Razorback Hill." 

Like most other deposits of ironstone in the vicinity of Broken Hill, 
tliis one was leased at one time by some prospectors, who believed it to be 
the cap of a rich silver or silver lead lode. 

The deposit agrees with other ironstones occurring on the Barrier 
Ranges inasmuch as it is superficial, but differs from them in consisting 
chiefly of magnetite. 

A tunnel, which has been driven into the hill at its base from the 
western side, has passed underneath the ironstone and encountered through- 
out its length a decomposing gneiss. 

The ironstone has in places a considerable quantity of quartz, and also 
some felspar and dark mica associated with it, while a microscopic examina- 
tion reveals the occasional presence of minute crystals of apatite. 

The mode of occurrence of the deposit, its general structure, . and 
appearance when viewed microscopically suggest that it represents a portion 
of a bed of gneiss which has been in part replaced by magnetite. 

Immediately below the summit of the ridge, near its south-western 
end, a pocket of a curious mineral which has proved on analysis to consist 
essentially of a mixture of phosphate of iron and magnesium has been dis- 
covered. I believe the presence of a considerable quantity of phosphoric 
acid in the rock was first remarked on by Mr. J. Cosmo Newbery, B.Sc.,C.M.G., 
who tested a sample sent to Melbourne by the men who were prospecting 
for silver. 

• 

The phosphate ore has a massive structure, a blueish-black colour, 
and, as will be seen by the accompanying analysis, contains 43*6 per cent, of 
phosphoric acid. 

T 



136 

An analysis of the stone has been made by Mr. H. P. White, F.O.S., 
Assistant Analyst to the Mines Department, with the following result : — 



Moisture 
Combined water 
Silica... 
Alumina 

Eerric oxide 

Ferrous „ 

Manganous oxide ... 
Lime (Ca. O.) .., 
Magnesia (Mg. O.).. 
Sulphuric anhydride 
Phosphoric „ 
Copper 



••• 



••• 



•59 
nil. 
•69 
•53 
•35 

26*71 

•49 

500 

22-77 
nil. 

43*60 

trace. 

99-73 



I have examined a largo number of analyses of the various " phos- 
phates" raised in America and elsewhere, but in no instance does a stono 
which resembles this one in composition appear to have been met with. 

The pocket in the Razorback Hill is only of very limited extent, and 
could at most only yield a few hundredweight of "phosphate"; but the 
discovery is, I think, an important one, as it suggests the possibility of other 
valuable phosphates being found in the neighbourhood. I would recommend 
the ironstone ridge being carefully prospected, for it will probably contain 
other and perhaps larger deposits of the mineral. Also I would recommend 
— in view of the fact that the great phosphate deposits of Canada and 
Norway occur in nearly allied rocks — a search being made for the mineral 
over all that portion of the Barrier Ranges which are composed of crystalline 
schists. 



It yet remains for me to thank those who have assisted me in the 
work connected with this Memoir. Many residents of Broken Hill and 
the neighbourhood, and more particularly the various Mine Managers and 
their Assistants, most ungrudgingly placed their services at my disposal. 
Especially must I convey my thanks to Messrs. J. Howell, W. H. Sclapp, 
H. E. Koehler, and W. Urcn, of the Proprietary Mine ; Mr. J. Warren, of 
Block 10 Mine ; Mr. Z. Lane, of Block 14 Mine ; Messrs. W. Marsh and 
C. Morgan, of the British Mine ; Messrs. F. E. Thomas and R. Adams^ of 



137 

the Central Mine ; Messrs. Cleland, Klug, and Smith, of the Aust. B. H. 
Consols Mine ; Mr. U. Dudley, of the TJmherumberka Mine ; Mr. C. 
Beaumont, of the Pinnacles Mine; Mr. J. W. Brougham, of Poolamacca 
Station ; Mr. W. Orr, of Broken Hill ; and Mr. C. W. Marsh, of Umberum- 
berka and Broken Hill. 

The plates were drawn and coloured by Mr. P. T. Hammond, Field 
Assistant ; the maps and sections were compiled by Mr. O. Trickett, L.S. ; and 
the bibliography was prepared by Mr. W. S. Dun, Assistant Palaeontologist 
and Librarian. 

I thank each of the gentlemen named for the skill and diligence 
which he has shown in carrying out the portion of the work allotted to him. 



136 

An analysis of the stone has been made by Mr. H. P. White, F.O.S., 
Assistant Analyst to the Mines Department, with the following result : — 



Moisture 
Combined water 
Silica... 
Alumina 
Ferric oxide... 

Ferrous „ 

ManganouB oxide ... 
Lime (Ca. O.) .., 
Magnesia (Mg. O.)... 
Sulphuric anhydride 
Phosphoric „ 
Copper 



••• 



• • • 



•• • 



••• 



•59 
nil. 
•69 
•53 
•35 

26-71 

•49 

500 

22-77 
nil. 

43-60 

trace. 

99-73 



I have examined a largo number of analyses of the various " phos- 
phates" raised in America and elsewhere, but in no instance does a stone 
which resembles this one in composition appear to have been met with. 

The pocket in the Razorback Hill is only of very limited extent, and 
could at most only yield a few hundredweight of "phosphate"; but the 
discovery is, I think, an important one, as it suggests the possibility of other 
valuable phosphates being found in the neighbourhood. I would recommend 
the ironstone ridge being carefully prospected, for it will probably contain 
other and perhaps larger deposits of the mineral. Also I would recommend 
— in view of the fact that the great phosphate deposits of Canada and 
Norway occur in nearly allied rocks — a search being made for the mineral 
over all that portion of the Barrier Ranges which are composed of crystalline 
schists. 



It yet remains for me to thank those who have assisted me in the 
work connected with this Memoir. Many residents of Broken Hill and 
the neighbourhood, and more particularly the various Mine Managers and 
their Assistants, most ungrudgingly placed their services at my disposal. 
Especially must I convey my thanks to. Messrs. J. Howell, W. H. Sclapp, 
H. E. Kochlcr, and W. Urcn, of the Proprietary Mine ; Mr. J. Warren, of 
Block 10 Mine; Mr. Z. Lane, of Block 14 Mine; Messrs. W. Marsh and 
C. Morgan, of the British Mine ; Messrs. F. E. Thomas and R. Adams^ of 



137 

the Central Mine ; Messrs. Cleland, K^ug, and Smith, of the Aust. B. H. 
Consols Mine ; Mr. U. Dudley, of the TJmberumberka Mine ; Mr. C. 
Beaumont, of the Pinnacles Mine; Mr. J. W. Brougham, of Poolamacca 
Station ; Mr. W. Orr, of Broken Hill ; and Mr. C. W. Marsh, of Umberum- 
berka and Broken Hill. 

The plates were drawn and coloured by Mr. P. T. Hammond, Field 
Assistant ; the maps and sections were compiled by Mr. O. Trickett, L.S. ; and 
the bibliography was prepared by Mr. W. S. Dun, Assistant Paleeontologist 
and Librarian. 

I thank each of the gentlemen named for the skill and diligence 
which he has shown in carrying out the portion of the work allotted to him. 



138 



APPENDIX 1. 

Eepoet by E. F. PiTTM^iy, A.R.S.M., Govkbnment Geologist, on the Broken IIill 

Lode.* 

Sir, Geological Survey Branch, Department of Mines, 12 April, 1892. 

During my recent visit to Broken Hill, where my colleague, Mr. J. B. Jaquet, F.G.S., 
is engaged upon a geological survey of the mines and their surroundings, I had an opportunity 
of inspecting the underground workings of several of the principal mines, and I was impressed 
by some facts in connection with the geological occurrence of the lode which appear to me to be 
of general interest. 

The principal impression conveyed to my mind is that the Broken Hill ore deposits do not 
occur in what is known as an ordinary true fissure lode, but should be referred to what are called 
" segregated lodes" of the type known in the Bendigo district (Victoria) as " saddles." 

It is true that the " saddle reefs" of Bendigo differ materially from the Broken Hill lode 
in dimensions, in metalliferous contents, and in the character of the gangue or veinstuff, the first- 
named consisting of auriferous quartz with a small percentage of iron pyrites, while the Broken 
Hill lode is argentiferous (though containing some gold), and consistfl, at and near the surface, 
of manganiferous ironstone, which below is replaced by kaolin and oxidized ores (carbonates) of 
lead, and these are again at greater depths succeeded by sulphides of lead and zinc. 

Nevertheless, there are points of similarity between the two which are worthy of note, 
and which may have some bearing upon the probable persistence in depth of the Broken Hill 
ore deposits. 

The difference (according to J. A. Phillips) between a true fissure vein and a segregated 
vein consists in the fact that the former occupies a fissure cutting (in a direction which may be 
more or less oblique) across the bedding planes of the country rock, while the latter is deposited 
in a fissure formed between and parallel with the stratified beds— the ore, in fact, having filled 
the space caused by the forcing apart of two contiguous beds. The variety of segregated reins 
so well known in Bendigo as " saddle reefs," and which, so far as I know, have not been hitherto 
recorded as occurring in any mining country except Victoria, differs from ordinary segregated 
lodes merely in the fact that instead of lying in one plane they occupy spaces or fissures which, 
owing to the bending or contortions of the country rocks, have assumed somewhat the shape of 
an inverted trough, and in cross section have the appearance of a saddle — hence the name. 

The country rock at Bendigo consists of highly contorted slates and sandstones, which are 
of Lower Silurian age. 

The contortions of these slates and sandstones have assumed the forms of anticlines and 
synclines. If a quire of paper be placed fiat upon the table and lateral pressure he exerted 
against the sides, it will be found to form saddles and troughs, or anticlines and synclines* 
corresponding with the contortions of the Bendigo rocks, which have, in fact, been produced 
in an analogous manner, and it will be noticed that spaces will be formed between the sheets of 

•Extr. Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines and Agric. N. S. Wales for 1892 [1893], pp. 108, 109. 



139 

paper more particularly at the upper parts of tLe anticlines and at the lower parts o£ the 
Bynclines correBpondmg exactly with the fissures in which the saddle reefs of Bendigo were 
deposited 





A — Soddlo reefs. 



h—la Lftcd Mddlce. 



The recfo at Boudigo are associated with narrow intrusive dyies of dark grey doleritc, 
vhich probably have had some iuiluence upon their auriferous contents. 

One of the chief poiuta of interest about these saddle reefs of Bendigo is that while the 
" legs" of the saddles are invariably found to thin out and disappear in depth, the pennauence 
of the mines is assured by the certainty of other saddles being discovered almost perpen- 
dicularly under the first, and at greater or less intervals of depth. 

Now the Broken Hill district is compoaed of similarly contorted rocks, consisting 
principally of crystalline gneisses paHsing into banded (juartziteB, micaceous and hornblendic 
schists, and gacnetiferous sandstones. Owing to the highly altered character of these rocks, 
and the consequent absence of organic remains, it is difficult to determine their exact age, 
but they were considered by the late Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., to be at least as Lower 
Silurian and probably older. 

There are no dolerites in the neighbourhood of the mines, but intrusive dykes of 
highly basic diorite are seen extending along both sides of the hill and more or less parallol to 
it. Broken Hill itself ia composed of an anticline, the highost part oE the ridge being occupied 
by the outcrop of the lode — a mass of manganifcrous iron ore which has withstood denudation 
by reason of it hardness and compactness — while on the eastern aud western slopes of the 
hill the gneissic rocks are found to be dipping east and west respectively. 

Below in the mines the lode is found to divide into two portions, one following the eastern 
dip while the other and larger portion dips to the west. The depth at which the lode divides 
. differs in the different mines along the hill. The rock which separates ui' divides the lode into 
the eastern and western portions is locally referred to by some as the " horse," and by others &i 
the " intrusion," but it appears to me that both terms are iucorrcct and misleading. It is not 



1-10 

an intrusion because it has not the character of a Tolcnnic or intruaire rock, but oonsiata in 
some places of gneiss, and in others of banded quortzito, both similar in character to the focki 
to be Boen at the surface. A " hotBe" consist of a mass (of greater or less extent) of country 
rock whicli has fallen from the haaging ^all into the vein fissure before the latter has filled vith 
mineral. But in my opinion the character of the rock forming the so-called " horse" at Broken 
Hill shows that it has not fallen into the fissure and been subsequently surrounded by lode-stufi*, 
but that it is the country rock or footwall of the lode in titu. In short, the foliations of this 
rock, which appear to coincide with its bedding plane*, are clearly defined, and appear to 
indicate that it is the cap of an anticline, forming the lower wall of a saddle-shaped fissure 
which the lode has filled, and similar in formation to the curred beds of ilate and landBtone 
which separate the legs of the saddle reefs at Bendigo. 




Ideal Section of Broken Hill. 

It has already been stated that this so-called " intrusion" is found at materially different 
depths in the principal mines along Broken Hill, and herein is another point of similarity to the 
Bendigo saddle reefs, which rise near to the surface in some mines, and descend to greater 
depths in others, owing to the fact that the country rocks in which the reefs occur are contorted 
into curves along their line of strike, as well aa in the transrerso direction. 

The Broken Hill lode, in short, appears to me to be a huge saddle lode, formed in a 
fissure which owed its shape to the contortions which the gneissic rocks have undergone. If 
this opinion bo correct, the probability is that the eastern and western legs will be found to thin 
out gradually aa they descend, and in that case the depth at which tbey would disappear would 
depend to a great extent upon the width of the synclinal basis on either side of the Hill. The 
underground workings in Block 10 show that at a depth of over 600 feet the western leg is still 
represented by a huge width of sulphide ores, bo that the possibility of the lode thinning out is 
OTidently not a matter for immediate alarm. What appears to me, however, as the most 
interesting question, is the possibility of similarly -shaped lodes being found more or less 
vertically under the present one, as they are found to occur in Bendigo, and undoabt«dly the 
best means of ascertaining this would be to put down diamond drill bores through the cap of 
the so-called intrusion. 



143 

Barrier E;anges. — Mining Progress in Queensland. Mining Journal^ 1884, -^^^, ^o. 
2663, p. 1166. 

Barrier Ranges. — Notes from AustraUa. Mining Journal, 1886, LVI, No. 2631, p. 109. 
[Silver-raining at Barrier Ranges.] 

Barrier Ranges. — The Silver-mining Industry of New South Wales. Mining Journal, 
1884, LIV, No. 2564, P- 1103. 

Barrier Ranges. — The Australian Nevada. [Abstract of Report by 0. S. Wilkinson.] 
Mining Journal, 1885, L V, No. 2589, p. 397. 

Barrier Ranges. — Silver-mining in the Barrier Ranges. The Broken Hill Proprietary 
Company. (From the Sydney Morning Herald.) Mining Journal, 1887, LVI I, No. 2719^ 
pp. 1183, 1184. 

Barrier Silver-field. — The Barrier Silver-field. Review of the Year. Ausir. Mining 

Standard, 1889, II, No. 72, pp. 5-7. 

Boxall (G. E.) — The Barrier Range Silver-field, Australia. Engineering and Mining 
Journ., 1892, LIV, No. 15, p. 340. 

Broken Hill. — The Great International Exhibition of Mining and Metallurgy, London, 
1890. New South Wales Courts. (Second notice.) The Broken Hill Proprietary 
Company (Limited). Mining Journal, 1890, LX, No. 2874, P- 1088. 

Broken Hill. — Broken Hill Notes. Auatr. Mining Standard, 1890, II, No. 73, p. 9. 

Broken Hill Block 10. — The Broken Hill Block 10. Austr. Mining Standard, 1892, 
VII, No. 177, pp. 190, 191. 

Broken Hill. Lead-poisoning. — Report of Board appointed to Inquire into the 
Prevalence and Prevention of Lead-poisoning at the Broken Hill Silver-lead Mines, 
to the Honorable the Minister for Mines and Agriculture. N. S. Wales Leg. Council 
Papers, 1893, C. 133--^. Folio. Sydney, 1893. By Authority. 

Broken Hill Minerals. — Broken Hill Minerals. Mr. E. W. Aldridge's Collection. 
AuBtr. Mining Standard, 1892, VII, No. 186, p. 324 ; No. 187, p. 339. 

Broken Hill Mines. — The Broken Hill Mines. Austr. Minhig Standard, 1892, VII, No. 
180, p. 239. 

Broken Hill Mines. — The Broken Hill Mines. Copper and Gold. Aicstr. Miyiing 
Standard, 1892, VIII, No. 216, p. 380. 

Broken Hill Mines. — Some of our Outside Mines near Broken Hill. Austr. Mining 
Standard, 1889, T, No. 43, p. 15. 

Broken Hill Mines. — The Broken Hill Mines. Austr. Mining Standard, 1889, I, No. 
48, p. 4- 

Broken Hill Mines. — The Broken Hill Mines. Austr. Mining Standard, 1890, II, No. 

75, p. 15 
U 



142 



APPENDIX II. 

Bibliography of the Geology, &c., of the Barrier Ranges District, by W. S. Dun, 

Assistant Palaeontologist and Librarian.* 

Adams (R. D.) — Silver-miniDg in Australia. Miniufj Journal, 1SS3, LI II, No, 2512, 
p. 1103. 

[Contains W. H. J. Slee's Report on Bamer Ranges Silver-lields.] 

Adams (R. D.) — Mining in New South Wales. Mining Journal, 1884, LIV, No, 25^1^ 
p, 622, 

[Barrier Ranges Silver Mines.] 

Adams (R. D.) — Silver-mining in New South Wales. Mining Journal, 1884, LIV, 
No, 2546, p. 669. 

Adams (R. D.) — Silverton, New South Wales. Mining Jour^ial, 1884, LIV, No, 2567 
p, 1277. 

Adams (R. D.) — Silver-mining in New South Wales. Mining Journal, 1884, LIV, No. 
2569, p. 1333. 

Adams (R. D.) — Silver-mining, New South Wales. Mining Journal, 1885, LV, No 
2614, p. 1082. 

Adams (R. D.) — Silver-mining in New South Wales. Mining Journal, 1888, LVIII, 
No. 2770, p. 1073. 

Anderson (W.) — Report on Water Supply for Broken Hill. Ann. Kept. Depi. Mines and 
Agric. N. S. Wales for 1891 [1892], pp. 254-259, with map. 

Austin (J. B.) — Mining in South Australia. Minifig Journal, 1883, LII, No. 2489, 
p. 537. 

[Discovery of Silver at Barrier Ranges.] 

Austin (J. B.) — The Barrier Ranges Silver District. Mining Journal, 1884, LIV, No. 
2566, p. 965. 

Barnett (A. N.) — Warden's Report on the Broken Hill, Silverton, Euriowie, and 
Mount Gipps Divisions^ Albert District. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1889 
[1890], pp. 122-124. 

Barnett (A. N.) — Warden's Report on the Broken Hill, Silverton, Euriowie, and 
Mount Gipps Divisions. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1890 [1891], pp. 
125, 126. 

Barrier Ranges. — Australian Silver-mining. The New Silver District in the Barrier 
Ranges. Minting Journal, 1884, LIV, No. 2554, p. 911. 

• This list contains references to all tlie literature of the geology and mining of Broken Hill and Barrier 
Banges District that has come under the notice of the Compiler. Though he is well aware that the Bibliography 
is by no moans complete, at any rate all the more important original works haTc been catalogued. This list does not 
contain references to Catiilogurs of Mining and otlicr Exhibitions, or to the reports of Mining Companies. — W.S.D. 



143 

Barrier E^anges. — Mining Progress in Queensland. Mining Journal, 1884, -^^^i ^o. 
2663, p. 1156. 

Barrier Ranges. — Notes from Australia. Mining Journal, 1886, L VI, No. 2631, p. 109. 
[Silver-raining at Barrier Ranges.] 

Barrier Ranges. — The Silver-mining Industry of New South Wales. Mining Journal, 
1884, LIV, No. 2564, P- 1103. 

Barrier Ranges. — The Australian Nevada. [Abstract of Report by 0. S. Wilkinson.] 
Mining Journal, 1885, L V, No. 2589, p. 397. 

Barrier Ranges. — Silver-mining in the Barrier Ranges. The Broken Hill Proprietary 
Company. (From the Sydney Morning Herald.) Minitig Journal, 1887, LVII, No. 2719^ 
pp. 1183, 1184. 

Barrier Silver-field. — The Barrier Silver-field. Review of the Year. Ausir. Mining 
Standard, 1889, II, No. 72, pp. 5-7. 

Boxall (G. E.) — The Barrier Range Silver-field, Australia. Engineering and Mining 
Joum., 1892, LIV, No. 15, ;>. 340. 

Broken Hill. — The Great International Exhibition of Mining and Metallurgy, London, 
1890. New South Wales Courts. (Second notice.) The Broken Hill Proprietary 
Company (Limited). Mining Journal, 1890, LX, No. 2874, 2^. 10S8. 

Broken Hill. — Broken Hill Notes. Aitstr. Milling Standard, 1890, II, No. 73, ]). 9. 

Broken Hill Block 10. — The Broken Hill Block 10. Austr. Mining Standard, 1892, 
VII, No. 177, pp. 190, 191. 

Broken Hill. Lead-poisoning. — Report of Board appointed to Inquire into the 
Prevalence and Prevention of Lead-poisoning at the Broken Hill Silver-lead Mines, 
to the Honorable the Minister for Mines and Agriculture. N. S. Wales Leg. Council 
Papers, 1893, C. 133 — a. Folio. Sydney, 1893. By Autlwrity. 

Broken Hill Minerals. — ^Broken Hill Minerals. Mr. E. W. Aldridge's Collection. 

Austr. Mining Standard, 1892, VII, No. ISO, p. 324 ; No. 187, ;>. 339. 

Broken Hill Mines. — The Broken Hill Mines. Austr. Mining Standard, 1892, VII, No. 
180, p. 239. 

Broken Hill Mines. — The Broken Hill Mines. Copper and Gold. Austr. Mining 
Standard, 1892, VIII, No. 216, p. 380. 

Broken Hill Mines. — Some of our Outside Mines near Broken Hill. Austr. Mining 
Standard, 1889, I, No. 43, p. 15. 

Broken Hill Mines. — The Broken Hill Mines. Atcstr. Mining Standard, 1889, I, No. 

48, p. 4. 

Broken Hill Mines. — The Broken Hill Mines. Austr. Mining Standard, 1890, II, No. 

75, p. 15 
U 



144 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co. — The Broken ffiU Proprietary Company (Limited). 

Engineering and Mining Journal^ 18S9y XL VI 11^ JS'o, 14, pp- 292, 293. 

Broken Hill Water Supply. — Report from the Select Committee on the Broken Hill 
Water Supply Bill ; together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of 
Evidence, and Appendix. K S, Wales Legislative Assembly Paper, 1888-89, 311 — A.y 
pp. 36, and plan. Folio. Sydney, 1889. By Auiluyrity. 

Broken Hill Water Supply. — Report from the Select Committee on the Broken Hill 
Water Supply Bill ; together with the Proceedings of the Committee and Minutes 
of Evidence. N. S. Wales Legislative Assemlly Papers, 1889, 451 — A., pp. 9, Folio. Sydney 
1889. By Authority. 

Brown (H. T. L.) — Report upon the Albert Gold-field, together with a description of 
the geological formation of the Paroo, Warrego^ and Culgoa Districts, north of the 
Darling River, especially with reference to the existence of Artesian Water, &c. 
N. S. Wales Parliamentary Papers, 1881, 4^7 — A. Folio. Sydivey, 1881. By AxUliority. 

Brown (W.) — Warden's Report on the Silverton Division, Albert District. Ann. Rept. 
Dept. Mines N, S. Wales for 1884 [1885], pp. 107, 108. 

Brown (W.) — Warden's Report on the Silverton Division, Albert District. Ann. 
Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1885 [1886'], pp. 101, 102. 

Brown (W.) — Warden's Report on the Silverton Division, Albert District. Ann. 
Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1886 [1887], pp. 101, 102. 

Brown (W.) — Warden's Report on the Silverton Division, Albert District. Ann. 

Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1887 [1888], pp. 104, 105. 

Brown (W.) — Warden's Report on the Silverton and Broken Hill Divisions, Albert 
District. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1888 [1889], pp. 121, 122. 

Brown (W.) — Warden's Report on the Wilcannia Division, Albert District. Ann. 
Rept. Dept. Mims N. S. Wales for 1889 [1890], p. 124^ 

Carne (J. E.) — Notes on the Mineral Resources of New South Wales, as represented 
at the Melbourne Centennial International Exhibition of 1888. Records Geol, S^irvey 
N. S. Wales, 1889, I, pt. 2, pp. 33-114- 
[Barrier Ranges Silver-fields, pp. 52-59.] 

Chemical Science Committee. — The State and Progress of Chemical Science in 
Australasia, with Special Reference to Gold and Silver Appliances used in the 
Colonies and elsewhere. Proc. Atistr. Assoc. Adv. Science, 1890, II, pp. 288-^92. 
[Mentions Broken Hill Silver Ores.] 

Conran (T. W.) — The Broken Hill Sulphide Ores. Amtr. Mining Standard, 1891, 71, 
Nos. 158, 159, p. 14- 

Cornish (Thomas) — ^AustraUan Silver Mines. Mining Journal, 1887, LYII^ No. ^690, 
p. 313. 



145 

Day (J. W.) — Mining Registrar's Report on the Tibooburra Division, Albert District. 
AnTL Report, Dept. Mines N, S. Wales for 1889 [1890], pp, 12S, 120. 

De Boos (G.) — Warden's Report on the Milparinka Division, Albert District. Ann, 

Rept, DepL Mines N, S. Wales for 1887 [1888\ pp. 105-107. 

De Boos (C.) — Warden's Report on the Milparinka Division, Albert District. Ann. 

Rept Dept. Mines iV. S. Wales for 1888 [18891 pp. 120, 121. 

Dixon (8.) — On a Subterranean Water Supply for the Broken Hill Mines. Trans. R. 
Soc. S. Atistr., 1891, XIV, pt. 2, pp. 200-209, pL 10. 

Drake (F. M.) — The Broken Hill Mines, New South Wales. Engineering and Mining 
Jotirnal, 1890, L, No. 10, pp. 271, 272. 

Fissure libde — Fissure Lode or Deep Lead. Av^tr. Mining Standard, 1890, IV, No. 81^ 
pp. 12, 13. 

Gibson (W. G.) — The Corona Lode. Austr. Mining Standard, 1890, IV, No. 87, p. 16. 

Gibson (W. G.) — The Nuntherungie Silver-field. Amtr. Mining Standard, 1890, IV, 
No. 109, p. 6. 

Gower (G. H.) — Warden's Report on the SHverton and Thackaringa Divisions, Albert 
District. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1883 [1884], PP- 113, II4. 

Iota — Australian Mining Progress. Mining Journal, 188 4, LIV, No. 2573, p. 1449. 
[Silverton and District.] 

Iota — The Silver-bearing Lodes of the Barrier Ranges. Mining Journal, No. I, I884, 
LIV, No. 2569, pp. 1333, 1334 ; No. II, 1884, LIV, No. 2570, p. 1361 ; No. Ill, 1884, 
LIV, No. 2571, p.' 1389. 

Jack (R. L.) — Notes on Broken Hill. Queensland rarliameiitarg Papers, 1891, G,A. — 66. 
Folio. Brisbane, 1891. By Authority. 

Jamieson (M. B.) and Howell (J.) — Mining and Ore Treatment at Broken Hill, 
N.S.W. ; with an abstract of the Discussion upon the Paper. Excerpt. Minutes Proc 
Inst. Civ. Eng., 1892-93, CXIV, pt. 4y PP» 68, sections, d;c. 

Jaquet (J. B.) — [Report on the Nuntherungie Silver-field]. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines and 
Agric. N S. Wales for 1892 [1893], pp. 138, 139. 

Jaquet (J. B.) — [Report on the White Cliffs Opal-field.] Ann. Rept Dept. Mines and 
Agric. N. S. Wales for 1892 [1893], pp. 140-142. 

Jaquet (J. B.) — [Report on the Broken Hill Platinum Deposits]. Ann. Rept. Dept. 
Mines and Agric. N. S. Wales for 1892 [1893], pj>. 142-145. 

Jukes (J. B.) — A Sketch of the Physical Structure of Australia, so fia as it is at 
present known. 8vo., London, 1850. 
[Geology of Barrier Ranges, pp. 52, 53.] 

Junction Inline — The Junction Mine. Austr. Mining Standard, 1889, I, No. bl, p. 17. 



146 

King (C. M*A.) — Warden's Report on the Milparinka Division, Albert District. Ann, 
EepL DepU Mines N. S, Wales for 188:2 [1883\ pp. 98, 99. 

King (C. M*A.) — Warden's Report on the Milparinka Division, Albert District. Ann. 

Rept. Dept. Mines K. S. Wales/or 1883 [1884\ pp. 115, 116. 

King (C. M*A.) — Warden's Report on the Milparinka Division, Albert District. Ann, 
Repi. DepL Mines N. S. Wales for 1884 [188o\ pp. 108, 109. 

King (C. M*A.) — Warden's Report on the Milparinka Division, Albert District. Ann. 
Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1885 [1886], ;?. 103. 

King (C. M*A.) — Warden's Report on the Milparinka Division, Albert District. Amu 

Rept. Dept. Mines If. S. Wales for 1886 [18871 p. 103. 

King (E. C.) — Mining Registrar's Repoit on the Mount Browne Division, Albert 
District. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines K S. Wales for 1882 [1883], ;y. 99, 100. 

King (E. C.) — Mining Registrar's Report on the Mount Browne Division, Albert 
District. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1883 [188^], p. 116. 

King (E. C.) — Warden's Report on the Mount Browne Division, Albert District. Ann. 
Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 188Jf [1885], p. 109. 

King (E. C.) — Mining Registrar's Report on the Mount Browne Division, Albert 
District. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1885 [1886], p. 104- 

King (E. C.) — Mining Registrar's Report on the Mount Browne Division, Albert 
District. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines K S. Wales for 1886 [1887], p. IO4. 

Leibius (A.) — Anniversary Address delivered to the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, 
6th May, 1891, Joum. R. Soc. K S. Wales for 1891 [1892], XXV, pp. 1-45. 
[Zinc Ores at Barrier Eanges, p. 44]. 

Liyersidge( A.) — Notes on some New South Wales Silver and other Minerals. Joum. 
R. Soc If. S. Wales, for 1886 [1887], XX, jip. 231-233. 

Liversidge (A.)— The Minerals of New South Wales, &c. 

[Occurrence at Barrier Eanges of — native silver, p. 37 ; stephanite and polybasite, p. 38 j 
kerargyrite, pp. 40, 41 ; bromargyrite, p. 41 ; embolite, p. 41 ; iodargyrite, pp. 41, 42 ; 
argentiferous ores, pp. 44-46 ; native copper, p. 53 ; cuprite, p. 54 ; malachite, p. 55 ; 
cerussite, p. 63 ; anglesite, p. 64 ; galena, p. 65 ; lead vanadate, p. 66 ; hative bismuth, 
p. 67 ; tin, p. 83 ; siderite, p. 99 ; pyrrhotine, p. 105 ; cobaltiferous iron oxide, p. 110 ; 
cobalt, p. 112 ; gypsum, p. 164 ; barytes, p. 165 ; chrysolite, p. 178 ; fibrolite, p. 182 ; 
talc, p. 191]. London, 8 vo. Sydney, 1888. 

Maitland (£. L.) — Warden's Report on the Milparinka Division, Albert District. Ann. 
Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1889 [1890], pp. 124, 12o. 

Maitland (E. L.) — Warden's Report on the Milparinka Division, Albert District. Ann. 
Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1890 [1891], jyp. 127, 128. 



147 

Maitland (E. L.) — ^Report of the Warden on the Milparinka DiviBion, Albert District. 
Ann, Bept. Dept. Mines and Agric. N. S. Walea/or 1891 [1892\ pp, 138, 139. 

Marsh (C. W.) — Geological Notes on the Barrier Ranges Silver-field. Jouni, B. Soc. 
N. S. Wales/or 1890, XXIV, pU 2, pp. 177^195. 

Marsh (C. W.) — On Native Copper Iodide (Marshite) and other Minerals from Broken 
HiU, N. S. Wales. Joum, R. Soc. N. S. Wales far 1892 [1893], XXVI, pp. 326^32. 

Mineral Census of Australasian Association Committee. — Minerals of New South 

Wales. Proc. Amtr. Assoc. Adv. Science, 1890, II, ;;/?. 205-216. 
[Mentions Barrier Ranges Minerals.] 

Mingaye (J. C. H.) — Notes on some Minerals, &c. Joum. R. Soc. N. S. Wales for 1889 
[1890], XXIII, jyp. 326-328. 

[Platinum from Broken Hill District, pp. 326, 327.] 

Mingaye (J, C. H.) — [Report on Bulk Assays for Platinum.] Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines 
and Agric. K S. Wales for 1891 [1892], pp. 276, 277. 

Mingaye (J. C. H.) — Report on the Platinum-bearing Minerals at Broken Hill. Ann. 
Rept. Dept. Mines and Agric. N. S. Wales for 1891 [1892], p. 276. 

Mingaye (J. C. H.) — Analyses of some of the Well, Spring, Mineral, and Artesian 
Waters of New South Wales, and their Probable Value for Irrigation and other 
Purposes. Joum. R. Soc. N. S. Wales of for 1892 [1893], XXVI, pp. 73''1S2. [Barrier 
Ranges Waters, pp. 82-89.] 

Mingaye (J. C. H.) — Platinum and its Associated Metals in Lode Material at Broken 
Hill, N. S. Wales. Joum R. Soc. N. S. Wales for 1892 [1893], XXVI, pp. 371-373. 

Murray (R. A. F.) — ^Report on the Property of the Broken Hill Block Silver-mining 
Company (No-Liability), Barrier Ranges, New South Wales. {4to. [Melbourne], 1890.) 

Pelatan (L.) — La Mine de Broken Hill, District de SUurton, New South Wales, 
Australia Genie Civil, 1891, XVIII, p. 235. 

Pittman (E. F.) — On the Geological Occurrence of the Broken HiU Ore-deposits, 

Records Geol Survey N. S. Wales, 1892, III, Pt. 2, pp. 45-49. 

Pittman (E. F.) — [Report on the Broken Hill Lode.] Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines and Agric. 
N. S. Wales, for 1892 [1893], pp. 108, 109. 

Pittman (E. F.) — Report on New South Wales Coke. Ann. Rept. Mhies and Agric. 
N. S. Wales for 1892 [1893], pp. 35-37. 

Power (F. D.) — Fissure Lode or Deep Lead. Austr. Mining Standard, 1890, IV, No. 86, 
p. 20. 

Pratt (A. W.) — Mining Registrar's Report on the Wilcannia Division, Albert District. 
Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines iV. S. Wales for 1888 [1889], p. 122. 



148 

Prior (S. H.) — Handbook of Australian Mines : A Historical, StatiBtical, and DeBcriptive 
Record of the Mines and Minerals of Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. By the 
Correspondents of the '' Australian Mining Standard.*' Edited by Mr. S. H. Prior. 

4to, Sydney, 1890, 

[Tlio Broken HUl Silver-field, pp. 51-60.] 

B/ennie (E. H.) — Presidential Address in Section B., Chemistry and Mineralogy. 

Proc, Ausir, Assoc, Adv, Sci., 1890, II, pp, 5oS0. 
[Broken Hill Minerals, p. 62.] 

Rickard (T. A.) — The Broken Hill Mines, New South Wales. Engineering and Mining 
Journ,, 1891, LII, No. 19, pp. 530^32. 

BiOdgerson (W. C.) — Warden's Report on the Wilcannia Division, Albert District. 
Ann. RepU Dept Mines N. S. Wales for 1890 [1891], pp. 126, 127. 

EiOdgerson (W. C.) — Report of the Warden on the Wilcannia Division, Albert District. 
Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines ami Agric. N. S. Wales for 1891 \1892\ p. 138. 

E/Odgerson (W. C.) — Report of the Acting Warden on the Euriowie, Broken Hill, 
and Mount Gipps Division, Albert District. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines and Agric. N. S. 
Wales for 1891 [18921 PP- ^^'^y -^^<^- 

Scbnabel (0.) — Report on the Metallurgical Treatment of the Sulphides of the Barrier 
Ranges to the Barrier Ranges Mining Companies' Association. Pp. 78. 4^o. Melbourne, 
1892. 

Slee ( W. n. J.) — Warden's Report on the Milparinka Division, Albert District. Ann. 

Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1881 [1882], pp. 106''108. 

9 

Slec (W. H. J.) — Inspector of Mines' Report. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 
1883 [1884], p. 125. 

[Barrier Ranges Silver Mines.] 

Slee (W. H. J.) — Mining Registrar's Report on the Mount Browne Division, Albert 
District. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1881 [1882], p. 109. 

Slee (W. H. J.) — Inspector of Mines' Report. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 

1886 [1887], pp. 108-112. 

[Silver and Tin-mining at the Barrier Ranges.] 

Slee (W. H. J.) — Inspector of Mines' Report. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. 8. Wales for 

1888 [1889], pp. 127'-'129. 

[Silver-mining at Barrier Ranges.] 

Steel (W. A.) — Report of the Mining Registrar on the Wilcannia Division, Albert 
District. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1880 [1881], p. 182. 

Steel (W. A.) — ^Warden's Report on the Wilcannia Division, Albert District. Ann. Sept. 
Dept. Mines N. S. Wales for 1881 [1882], p. 106. 



MeitCeol. Survey, N.S.W.Ceol.N?5 Pute I 






■<^ 


^0^ 







PLATE I. 

Fio. 1. 

Garnet quartz-rock (Garnet Sandstone) from Junction North Silver Mine, Broken 
Hill. Magnified 50 diameters ; ordinary light. 

The minerals represented are quartz, garnets, and a silver mineral (argentite ?). 

The quartz grains include small grains and idiomorphic crystals of garnet; hence the 
former mineral must be contemporaneous with, or younger than, the latter. The quartz also con- 
tains bands and aggregates of minute inclusions. 

The silver mineral in places completely encloses both the garnets and quartz, and would 
appear to be the last one of all deposited ; its arrangement suggests that it may be a pseudomorph 
after garnet. 

The rock from which this section is cut contains 60 oz. of silver per ton, and is in con- 
sequence a valuable silver ore. 

Pio. 2. 

Garnet quartz-mica-rock from four miles east of Broken Hill. Magnified 50 diameters ; 
ordinary light. 

The constituent minerals are quartz, garnet, dark mica, apatite, and a dark mineral which 
is probably a variety of silver-lead ore. 

The quartz includes many perfectly crystalline prisms of apatite, which are for the most 
part doubly terminated with pyramids, small garnets, and numerous minute inclusions. 

The biotite occurs as bands of plates ; a band of this mineral can be seen on either side 
of tae figure. The bands of dark mica, alternating with lighter bands of rock in which this 
mineral is absent, give the rock a characteristic macroscopic appearance. 



Mek. CeoiSimvcY. N.S-W.Geol.N?5 




PLATE II. 

Fio. 1. 

Schillerized felspar-quartz rock» from the Victoria Cross Mine, Broken Hill. 
Magnified 50 diameters ; ordinary light. 

The minerals represented are orthoclatse and quartz. 

The section has been figured with a view of illustrating schillerization as occurring in the 
Broken Hill rocks. It will be noticed how the plate-like inclusions are situated, both in the 
felspar and quartz, while some of them occur partly in the one mineral and partly in the other. 

Fio. 2. 

Oranitite, from four miles east of Silverton. Magnified 50 diameters ; polarised light. 

The minerals represented are plagioclase, quartz, and light mica. 

The plagioclase is for the most part very perfectly twinned, chiefly upon the albite type, 
but sometimes (in portions of slide not figured), both upon the albite and pericline type. They 
are much schillerized. 

Tlie quartz appears in every case to have had a secondary origin and to have been 
developed at the expense of the felspar, and after the latter had received its lamellar twinning. 

The mica occurs as buuchy aggregates which are replacing the felspars ; in portions of the 
section not figured, plates both of light and dark mica occur. 



Mem. Ceol Survey. N.S.W.Geol.N«5. 




PLATE III. 



Fio. 1. 

Amphibolite, from a depth of 1,150 feet in borehole put down near Broken Hill on 
Mineral Lease, Portion 35, Parish of Picton. Magnified 50 diameters ; pohrised light. 

The minerals represented are hornblende, magnetite, apatite, and quartz. 

A macroscopic* examination of the core from which the specimen is taken shows it to be 
rudely foliated. 

Fig. 2. 

Plagioclase — bronzite— amphibolite, from the Consols Mine, Broken Hill. Magnified 
50 diameters; ordinary light. 

The minerals represented are hornblende, plagioclaso, and a rhombic pyroxene which 
Prof. T. "W. E. David, B.A., has determined to be bronzite. 

The felspars are remarkable for their extreme clearness and freedom from alteration 
products. 



MtM. Ceol. Survey. N.S.WGeoi N" 




i:;.<»:r 



PLATE IV. 



Pio. 1. 



AmphibolitOj with garnets^ from Mineral Lease, Portion 51, Parish of Picton. Magnified 
50 diameters ; ordinary light. 

The minerals represented are hornblende, garnet, quartz, and apatite. 

This section has been reproduced chiefly with a view of showing the development of 
garnet at the expense of hornblende. 

A considerable quantity of secondary quartz occurs in other parts of the section not 
figured. 

Fig. 2. 

Foliated Amphibolite» from Mineral Lease, Portion 75, Parish of Picton. Magnified 50 
diameters ; ordinary light. 

The minerals represented are the same as in the last figure. 

The rock would appear to be a crushed amphibolite. 



Mem GeolSurvev. NSW.CcolN°5 


Pl«te IV 




fcw '"J 


i^'S''" 


^*i 


1^1*^ 


__j^ 


H^^iHi^^H 


^^^; / ^ ''^ ^^N-^B 


^^^^W ^ 1 




^^^H^P*^ 


laaBU 



/>R&ai»iuI iA: 



4. 




PLATE V. 

Fio. 1. 

Serpentinous Schist, from the same locality as Fig. 1. Magnified 60 diameters; crossed 
nieols. 

The minerals represeuted are identical with those mentioned in the description of the last 
iigure. 



Fia. 2. 

Hornblende altering into serpentine, from the Sed Hill, Bockwell. Magnified 225 
diameters ; polarised light. 

Minerals represented are hornblende, magnetite, and serpentinous products; in that 
portion of the section not rcpreBeuted plates of a talc-like mineral occur. 

The hornblende appears colourless when viewed by normal transmitted light, but can be 
recognised by its characteristic cleavage. 

The serpentinous products occur chiefly as lath- shaped bundles of fibres. 



MtM. CEOL.SunvEY. N.S-W.Ceol,N?5 




L 



PLATE VI. 

Fig. 1. 

Epidiorite, from Nuutheruiigio Sllvor-lielJ. Maj.ii/ieJ 50 diametera ; ordinarif light. 

The miaeraU represented are hornblondc, leUpar, ilinsnite, epidote, and a little quartz and 
caloito. 

The hornblende is seen in many places to be fraying out and assuming a fibrous form and 
to be passing into epidote. 

The felspars arc much decomposed, and I am unable to state definitely whether they 
belong to the monoclinic or triclinic group ; the general characteristics of the rock, however, 
might make one venture to put them with the latter class. Sometimes they possess a lath- 
shaped form, but more often their boundaries are not well defined. 

The ilmenite is much altered into leucoxeu. The parallel grouping of plates and arrange- 
ment of the groups, so typical of altering ilmenite, is particularly well shown in the figure. 

Fig. 2. 

Orthoclase, being replaced by galena and blende from winze on 515-feet level, Block 10 
Silver-mine, Broken Hill. Magnified 50 diamelers ; ordinary light. 

The minerals represented are a massive form of orthoclase and an intimate mixture of 
argentiferous galena and zinc blende (sulphide ore). 

On the right hand side of the plate a mass of ore can be seen which at one time would 
appear to have been slowly driving out the felspar. In places portions of the felspar have been 
completely surrounded by ore. The deposition of ore appears to have taken place for the most 
part along lines coincident with the cleavage planes. 



Mem. Ceol Survey. N.S.W.Ceol.N?5. 




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PLATE TIL 

Fig. 1. 

Altered Basalt; from Nuntherungie Silver-field. Magn\fied'^ diameUr$:'Ordmartf ligkU 

Minerals represented are olivine passing , into serpentine, . plagioclase/-. augite, and 
magnetite. The whole rock is stained with red ferruginous alteration products. 

Fios. 2 and 3. 

Pitchstone, from Nuntherungie. Magnified 50 diameters ; ordinarjf light. 

The rock consists of idiomorphic crystals of quartz and sanidine, skeleton crystals, and 
incipient spherulites scattered in a brown crypto-crystalline ground-mass. 

Fio. 4. 

Stellate Spherulite, drawn from same slide as Figs. 2 and 3. Magnified 225 diameters ; 
ordinary light, 

Fio. 5. 

Felspar, including plagioclase crystals, from Nuntherungie. Magnified 50 diameters; 
ordinary light, 

A portion of a large porphyritic crystal of felspar (plagioclase?) from quartz felsite, 
which includes other plagioclase crystals is here figured. 

Fig. 6. 

Felspar. Magnified 8i diameters. 

The boundaries of the felspar, including the plagioclase crystal, which is in part represented 
in the last figure are here completed. 



Mem. Geol. Survev, N.S.W. Geol. No. 5. 







F 



PLATE VIII. 



Fio. 1. 

Serpentine after amphibolite, from Eockwell, Barrier Banges. Magnified 50 diameten ; 
crossed nieols. 

The mineral represented is serpentine, which is present both as bands of doubly refracting 
fibres, and a clear isotropic ground-mass. The arrangement of the bands would seem to be 
characteristic of serpentine after amphibolite. 

Fig. 2. 

Oold in felspar (Microcline), from Mundi Muudi, Barrier Banges. Magnified 60 
diameters ; ordinary light. 

The minerals represented are microcline, quartz, gold (a), and magnetite, with red 
ferruginous alteration products. 

The sample of rock from which this section is cut yielded, on assay, gold at the rate of 
7 oz. 16 dwt. per ton. 

Pm. 8. 

Bepresents a portion of same slide as that from which Fig. 2 was obtained. Magnified 
50 diameters ; crossed nieols. 

The " cross-hatching " of the microcline is here apparent. 

Figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Negative crystals in triclinic felspar. Magnified 225 diameters ; ordinary light, 
lliese crystals are figured from one of the felspar constituents of the granitite, represented 
in Plate II, Fig. 2. 



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